Creatinine and proteinuria are used to monitor kidney transplant patients. However, renal biopsies are needed to diagnose renal graft rejection. Here, we assessed whether the quantification of different urinary cells would allow non-invasive detection of rejection. Urinary cell numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, monocytes/macrophages, tubular epithelial cells (TEC), and podocalyxin(PDX)-positive cells were determined using flow cytometry and were compared to biopsy results. Urine samples of 63 renal transplant patients were analyzed. Patients with transplant rejection had higher amounts of urinary T cells than controls; however, patients who showed worsening graft function without rejection had similar numbers of T cells. T cells correlated with histological findings (interstitial inflammation p = 0.0005, r = 0.70; tubulitis p = 0.006, r = 0.58). Combining the amount of urinary T cells and TEC, or T cells and PDX+ cells, yielded a significant segregation of patients with rejection from patients without rejection (all p < 0.01, area under the curve 0.89-0.91). Urinary cell populations analyzed by flow cytometry have the potential to introduce new monitoring methods for kidney transplant patients. The combination of urinary T cells, TEC, and PDX-positive cells may allow non-invasive detection of transplant rejection.