This is the first attempt to analyse vascular plant diversity patterns regarding the seven vegetated islands of the Santorini archipelago (Aegean Sea, Greece) as a whole. Hitherto unpublished floristic records, combined with critical use of taxonomic and chorological information from previous and most recent literature, resulted in a total of 696 infrageneric taxa (species and subspecies) occurring in the area. Detailed qualitative and quantitative phytodiversity spectra per individual island are presented, and floristic dissimilarity (beta-diversity) between islands is considered. Spatial distribution of 28 chorological, ecological, vegetative and reproductive traits for each recorded taxon have been calculated in order to detect regional and fundamental patterns in functional biogeography beyond traditional species-based approaches, based on both taxonomic and functional components of diversity. Mediterranean species constitute the most abundant chorological element and therophytes the most abundant life-form element in the region. Surface area is the most influential variable contributing to species richness; very strong relationships in (1) species per area, (2) functional richness per area and (3) functional richness per species richness are revealed for the Santorini archipelago. Floristic cross-correlations revealed an overall high floristic heterogeneity among the individual islands. The phytodiversity assessment presented is undoubtedly of documentary value in consideration of expected future eruptive events in the area which may damage the plant cover at least on some of the involved islands to a yet unpredictable extent.