Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an emerging disease in industrialized countries which is usually characterized by a self-limited course. However, there is an increased risk of HEV persistence in immunocompromised risk populations, comprising patients following solid organ transplantation or hematological malignancies. Recently, chronic HEV infection following rituximab-containing treatment regimens has been described. Here we report five patients with chronic hepatitis E after prior rituximab therapy for various indications. We determined the immunological characteristics of these patients and analyzed the development of ribavirin (RBV) treatment failure-associated mutations in the HEV genome. One patient became chronically HEV-infected 110 months after administration of rituximab (RTX). Immunological characterization revealed that all patients exhibited significant hypogammaglobulinemia and CD4+ T cell lymphopenia. One patient permanently cleared HEV following weight-based ribavirin treatment while three patients failed to reach a sustained virological response. In depth mutational analysis confirmed the presence of specific mutations associated with RBV treatment failure in these patients. Our cases indicate that rituximab-containing treatment regimens might imply a relevant risk for persistent HEV infection even years after the last rituximab application. Moreover, we provide further evidence to prior observations suggesting that chronically HEV infected patients following RTX-containing treatment regimens might be difficult to treat.