We investigated the diagnostic potential of simultaneous 18F-FET PET/MR-imaging for differentiation between recurrent glioma and post-treatment related effects (PTRE) using quantitative volumetric (3D-VOI) lesion analysis. In this retrospective study, a total of 42 patients including 32 patients with histologically proven glioma relapse and 10 patients with PTRE (histopathologic follow-up, n = 4, serial imaging follow-up, n = 6) were evaluated regarding recurrence. PET/MR-imaging was semi-automatically analysed based on FET tracer uptake using conservative SUV thresholding (isocontour 80%) with emphasis on the metabolically most active regions. Mean (relative) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmean, rADCmean), standardised-uptake-value (SUV) including target-to-background (TBR) ratio were determined. Glioma relapse presented higher ADCmean (MD ± SE, 284 ± 91, p = 0.003) and TBRmax (MD ± SE, 1.10 ± 0.45, p = 0.02) values than treatment-related changes. Both ADCmean (AUC ± SE = 0.82 ± 0.07, p-value < 0.001) and TBRmax (AUC ± SE = 0.81 ± 0.08, p-value < 0.001) achieved reliable diagnostic performance in differentiating glioma recurrence from PTRE. Bivariate analysis based on a combination of ADCmean and TBRmax demonstrated highest diagnostic accuracy (AUC ± SE = 0.90 ± 0.05, p-value < 0.001), improving clinical (false negative and false positive) classification. In conclusion, biparametric analysis using DWI and FET PET, both providing distinct information regarding the underlying pathophysiology, presented best diagnostic accuracy and clinical benefit in differentiating recurrent glioma from treatment-related changes.