Differences in gene regulation have been suggested to play essential roles in the evolution of phenotypic changes. Although DNA changes in cis-regulatory elements affect only the regulation of its corresponding gene, variations in gene regulatory factors (trans) can have a broader effect, because the expression of many target genes might be affected. Aiming to better understand how natural selection may have shaped the diversity of gene regulatory factors in human, we assembled a catalog of all proteins involved in controlling gene expression. We found that at least five DNA-binding transcription factor classes are enriched among genes located in candidate regions for selection, suggesting that they might be relevant for understanding regulatory mechanisms involved in human local adaptation. The class of KRAB-ZNFs, zinc-finger (ZNF) genes with a Krüppel-associated box, stands out by first, having the most genes located on candidate regions for positive selection. Second, displaying most nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with high genetic differentiation between populations within these regions. Third, having 27 KRAB-ZNF gene clusters with high extended haplotype homozygosity. Our further characterization of nonsynonymous SNPs in ZNF genes located within candidate regions for selection, suggests regulatory modifications that might influence the expression of target genes at population level. Our detailed investigation of three candidate regions revealed possible explanations for how SNPs may influence the prevalence of schizophrenia, eye development, and fertility in humans, among other phenotypes. The genetic variation we characterized here may be responsible for subtle to rough regulatory changes that could be important for understanding human adaptation.