Pyrotechnology for the prehistoric pottery has been an important subject for the study of ancient production technology and technological styles. However, heterogeneous characteristics in chemical and mineralogical compositions and massive amounts of ceramic sherds at most archaeological sites make it difficult to identify production technologies. In this study, SEM-EDS/WDS, XRD and transmittance and reflectance FT-IR techniques were employed step by step, in order to overcome these limitations. The serial combination of each method covers a macro-, meso- and micro-scale and it enabled us to identify the relationship between firing temperature, reducing or oxidizing atmosphere and thermally induced mobility of Ca and Fe. Numerous ceramic pottery sherds from two archaeological sites in the North Caucasus, Ransyrt 1 (Middle-Late Bronze Age) and Kabardinka 2 (Late Bronze/Early Iron Age) were investigated and compared to the ceramics found at Levinsadovka and Saf’janovo around the Sea of Azov, Russia (Late/Final Bronze Age) for this purpose. Morphological changes by sintering and transformation of indicator minerals such as calcite, hematite, spinel, gehlenite, quartz and cis/trans-vacant 1M illite provide temperature thresholds at 675, 700, 750, 950, 1050, 1100, 1300 °C. With the laboratory based FT-IR, vibrational changes in shape, wavenumber and intensity corresponding to Si-O stretching bands yield an order and classification of the ceramics with regard to firing conditions between the samples as well as the unraveling of temperature profiles within a single sample in a 100 µm scale. With this approach, the number of archaeological ceramics could be classified according to the pyrometamorphic transformation of heterogeneous ceramic composite materials. Combined with the archaeological contexts of each site, these results will contribute to the reconstruction of local technological styles.