This study examined the association between job characteristics, namely job demands and job resources, and mental health outcomes in terms of emotional exhaustion and well-being among police officers. Eight hundred forty-three German police officers participated in a cross-sectional online survey. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the validity of the dual process model of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) framework in the context of police work. Job demands (verbal assaults by citizens, workload, and administrative stressors) predicted emotional exhaustion whereas job resources (team support, shared values, and perceived fairness) predicted well-being. Moreover, job resources were directly and negatively associated with emotional exhaustion. The findings confirm the capacity of job resources to simultaneously promote well-being and reduce emotional exhaustion. Work place interventions should thus not merely decrease job demands. To improve and protect police officers’ well-being, it is advisable to promote job resources. A supportive and fair organizational climate based on shared values is required to foster mental health in the context of police work.