Background: Adapted ketogenic diet (AKD) and caloric restriction (CR) have been suggested as alternative therapeutic strategies for inflammatory, hyperproliferative and neurodegenerative diseases. Pro-inflammatory eicosanoids have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis since they augment vascular permeability and induce leukocyte migration into the brain. We explored the impact of ketogenic diets on gene expression of biosynthetic enzymes for pro- (ALOX5, COX1, COX2) and anti-inflammatory (ALOX15) eicosanoids in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Methods: 60 adults were prospectively recruited for this six months randomized controlled trial and the impact of dietary treatment on the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 index (ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01538355) has previously been published. Here we explored 24 patients (8 controls, 5 on CR and 11 on AKD). For statistical analysis we combined the two diet groups to a single pooled treatment group. Findings: Inter-group comparison indicated that expression of the pro-inflammatory ALOX5 in the pooled treatment group was significantly (p <0.05) reduced when compared with the control group. Moreover, intra-group comparison (same individuals before and after dietary treatment) suggested significantly impaired expression of other pro-inflammatory enzymes, such as COX1 (p < 0.001) and COX2 ( p < 0.05). Finally, pretreatment cross-group analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between expression of pro-inflammatory ALOX5 and COX2 and an inverse correlation of ALOX5 and COX1 expression with the MSQoL-54 index. Interpretation: Ketogenic diets can reduce the expression of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. Pharmacological interference with eicosanoid biosynthesis might constitute a strategy supplementing current therapeutic approaches for MS. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.