Interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IFTA) is associated with reduced allograft survival, whereas antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is the major cause for renal allograft failure. To identify specific microRNAs and their regulation involved in these processes, total RNA from blood cells of 16 kidney transplanted (KTx) patients with ABMR, stable graft function (SGF) and with T-cell mediated rejection (TCMR) was isolated. MicroRNA expression was determined by high-throughput sequencing. Differentially expressed candidate microRNAs were analyzed with RT-PCR in patients with SGF (n = 53), urinary tract infection (UTI) (n = 17), borderline rejection (BL) (n = 19), TCMR (n = 40), ABMR (n = 22) and IFTA (n = 30). From the 301 detected microRNAs, 64 were significantly regulated between the three cohorts. Selected candidate microRNAs miR-223-3p, miR-424-3p and miR-145-5p distin-guished TCMR and ABMR from SGF, but not from other pathologies. Most importantly, miR-145-5p expression in IFTA patients was significantly downregulated and displayed a high diagnostic accuracy compared to SGF alone (AUC = 0.891) and compared to SGF, UTI, BL, TCMR and ABMR patients combined (AUC = 0.835), which was verified by cross-validation. The identification of miR-145-5p as IFTA specific marker in blood constitutes the basis for evaluating this potentially diagnostic microRNA as biomarker in studies including high numbers of patients and different pathologies and also the further analysis of fibrosis causing etiologies after kidney transplantation.