Under entrained conditions, the accumulation of homeostatic sleep pressure in the evening is opposed by a strong circadian arousal signal prior to the dim light melatonin onset, called the Wake Maintenance Zone (WMZ). This study aimed at investigating the impact of the WMZ on different cognitive performance tests, as well as on subjective and objective sleepiness. Twelve young male participants completed a constant routine protocol with 40 h of extended wakefulness that included two WMZs. Cognitive tests and saliva samples were assessed hourly, while the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded continuously. Participants improved in cognitive response inhibition during WMZ1 (13.5 h awake) and sustained attention during WMZ2 (37.5 h awake), but not in higher executive function tests. There were significant EEG power density reductions in the delta/theta frequency range during WMZ1 and in delta/theta, alpha, and sigma/beta ranges during WMZ2, with a greater change in the sigma/beta range during WMZ2 compared toWMZ1. EEG power reductions coincided during WMZ1 with stable subjective sleepiness and sustained attention. During WMZ2, EEG power reductions were more pronounced and coincided with improved sustained attention. Our results suggest the circadian arousal signal in the evening differently modulates cognitive functions and EEG power depending on the duration of prior wakefulness.