Gravitational stress occurs during space flights or certain physical activities including extreme sports, where the change in experienced gravitational acceleration can reach large magnitudes. These changes include reduction and increase in the physical forces experienced by the body and may potentially induce pathogenic alterations of physiological processes. The immune system is known to regulate most functions in the human organism and previous studies suggest an impairment of the immune function under gravitational stress. However, systematic studies aiming to investigate the effect of gravitational stress on cellular immune response in humans are lacking. Since parabolic flights are considered as feasible model to investigate a short-term impact of gravitational changes, we evaluated the influence of gravitational stress on the immune system by analyzing leukocyte numbers before and after parabolic flight maneuvers in human blood. To correct for circadian effects, samples were taken at the corresponding time points on ground the day before the flight. The parabolic flight maneuvers led to changes in numbers of different leukocyte subsets. Naïve and memory T and B cell subsets decreased under gravitational stress and lower numbers of basophils and eosinophils were observed. Only circulating neutrophils increased during the parabolic flight. The observed changes could not be attributed to stress-induced cortisol effects, since cortisol levels were not affected. Our data demonstrate that the gravitational stress by parabolic flights can affect all parts of the human immune system. Consequently, it is possible that gravitational stress can have clinically relevant impacts on the control of immune responses.