Adaptive recovery from a stressor fosters resilience. So far, however, few studies have examined brain functional connectivity in the aftermath of stress, with inconsistent results reported. Focusing on the immediate recovery from psychosocial stress, the current study compared amygdala resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) before and immediately after psychosocial stress between cortisol responders and non-responders. Differences between groups were expected for amygdala RSFC with regions involved in down-regulation of the physiological stress response, emotion regulation, and memory consolidation. Eighty-six healthy participants (36 males/50 females) underwent a social stress paradigm inside the MRI scanner. Before and immediately after stress, resting-state (RS) fMRI scans were acquired to determine amygdala RSFC. Next, changes in connectivity from pre- to post-stress were compared between cortisol responders and non-responders. Responders demonstrated a cortisol increase, higher negative affect, and decreased heart rate variability (HRV) in response to stress compared to non-responders. A significant Sex-by-Responder-by-Time interaction was found between the bilateral amygdala and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus (p < 0.05, corrected). As males were also more likely to show a cortisol increase to the stress task than females, follow-up analyses were conducted for both sexes separately. Whereas no difference was observed between female responders and non-responders, male non-responders showed an increase in FC after stress between the bilateral amygdala and the PCC and precuneus (p < 0.05, corrected). The increased coupling of the amygdala with the PCC/precuneus, a core component of the default mode network (DMN), might indicate an increased engagement of the amygdala within the DMN directly after stress in non-responders. Although this study was carried out in healthy participants, and the results likely reflect normal variations in the neural response to stress, understanding the mechanisms that underlie these variations could prove beneficial in revealing neural markers that promote resilience to stress-related disorders.