Plasma clearance of iohexol is a key tool to precisely determine glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in clinical research and clinical practice. Despite evidence that iohexol pharmacokinetics are described best by three-compartment models, two-compartment approaches (Schwartz approach) are customary, which might result in avoidable bias and imprecision. We aimed to provide a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model of iohexol by re-evaluating data from the Berlin Initiative Study (BIS) to compare respective clearance estimates to the Schwartz approach and to assess the impact of revised clearance estimates on the BIS equations. A popPK model was developed based on iohexol plasma samples (8-10 per subject, iohexol dose 3235 mg) from 570 elderly patients. A three-compartment model appropriately described the pharmacokinetics of iohexol (clearance 57.4 mL/min, CV 33%). Compared to the three-compartment model, clearance values were overestimated by the Schwartz approach (bias 6.5 mL/min), resulting in limited effects on regression coefficients of the BIS equations (e.g., proportionality factor of B152 changed from 767 to 720). Predictions based on the B152 equation were biased (5.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and the sensitivity to detect a GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) was low compared to the revised equation (72% versus 89%). Three-compartment models should be employed to assess iohexol pharmacokinetics.