Cerebral stiffness (CS) reflects the biophysical environment in which neurons grow and function. While long-term CS changes can occur in the course of chronic neurological disorders and aging, little is known about acute variations of CS induced by intracranial pressure variations. Current gold standard methods for CS and intracranial pressure such as magnetic resonance elastography and direct pressure recordings are either expensive and slow or invasive. The study objective was to develop a real-time method for in vivo CS measurement and to demonstrate its sensitivity to physiological aging and intracranial pressure variations induced by the Valsalva maneuver in healthy volunteers. We used trans-temporal ultrasound time-harmonic elastography (THE) with external shear-wave stimulation by continuous and superimposed vibrations in the frequency range from 27 to 56 Hz. Multifrequency wave inversion generated maps of shear wave speed (SWS) as a surrogate maker of CS. On average, cerebral SWS was 1.56 +/- 0.08 m/s with a tendency to reduce with age (R = -0.76, p < 0.0001) while Valsalva maneuver induced an immediate stiffening of the brain as reflected by a 10.8 +/- 2.5% increase (p < 0.0001) in SWS. Our results suggest that CS is tightly linked to intracranial pressure and might be used in the future as non-invasive surrogate marker for intracranial pressure, which otherwise requires invasive measurements.