Alpine vegetation on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is known to be sensitive to both climate change and anthropogenic disturbance. However, the magnitude and patterns of alpine vegetation dynamics and the driving mechanisms behind their variation on the TP remains under debate. In this study, we used updated MODIS Collection 6 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the Terra satellite combined with linear regression and the Break for Additive Season and Trend model to reanalyze the spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation change on the TP during 2000–2015. We then quantified the responses of vegetation variation to climatic and anthropogenic factors by coupling climatic and human footprint datasets. Results show that growing season NDVI (GNDVI) values increased significantly overall (0.0011 year−1, p < 0.01) during 2000–2015 and that 70.37% of vegetated area on the TP (23.47% significantly with p < 0.05) exhibited greening trends with the exception of the southwest TP. However, vegetation greenness experienced trend shifts from greening to browning in half of the ecosystem zones occurred around 2010, likely induced by spatially heterogeneous temporal trends of climate variables. The vegetation changes in the northeastern and southwestern TP were water limited, the mid-eastern TP exhibited strong temperature responses, and the south of TP was driven by a combination of temperature and solar radiation. Furthermore, we found that, to some extent, anthropogenic disturbances offset climate-driven vegetation greening and aggravated vegetation browning induced by water deficit. These findings suggest that the impact of anthropogenic activities on vegetation change might not overwhelm that of climate change at the region scale.