Previous research in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has indicated performance decrements in working memory (WM) and response inhibition. However, underlying neural mechanisms of WM deficits are not well understood to date, and empirical evidence for a proposed conceptual link to inhibition deficits is missing. We investigated WM performance in a numeric n-back task with four WM load conditions during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in 51 patients with OCD and 49 healthy control participants who were matched for age, sex, and education. Additionally, a stop signal task was performed outside the MRI scanner in a subsample. On the behavioral level, a significant WM load by group interaction was found for both accuracy (p < 0.02) and reaction time measures (p < 0.03), indicating increased reaction times as well as reduced accuracy specifically at high WM load (3-back) in patients with OCD. Whole-brain analyses of fMRI-data identified neural correlates of a load-dependent WM decrement in OCD in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Within the OCD sample, SMA- activity as well as n-back performance were correlated with stop signal task performance. Results from behavioral and fMRI-analyses indicate a reduced WM load-dependent modulation of neural activity in OCD and suggest a common neural mechanism for inhibitory dysfunction and WM decrements in OCD.