Background The incidence of human Campylobacter jejuni infections is progressively increasing worldwide. Probiotic compounds might open up valuable tools to decrease pathogen burden and subsequent pro-inflammatory immune responses, but in vivo data are scarce. Methods and results Secondary abiotic mice generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment were perorally challenged with the commercial probiotic compound VSL#3 consisting of Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus) either 5 days before (i.e. prophylactic regimen) or after (i.e. therapeutic regimen) peroral C. jejuni strain 81–176 infection, and analyzed 3 weeks following the initial bacterial re-association. Upon challenge, mice were colonized with the probiotic bacteria and/or C. jejuni at comparable intestinal loads, but co- colonization did not result in reduction of the pathogen burden. Remarkably, prophylactic as well as therapeutic VSL#3 treatment of C. jejuni infected mice ameliorated intestinal apoptosis and pro-inflammatory immune responses as indicated by lower numbers of innate and adaptive immune cell populations in the murine colon upon probiotic prophylaxis or treatment and reduced colonic concentrations of pro-inflammatory mediators including IL-6 and MCP-1. Importantly, concentrations of anti-inflammatory mediators such as IL-10 were significantly elevated in the colon of probiotics treated mice as compared to untreated controls. Strikingly, prophylactic VSL#3 treatment attenuated C. jejuni induced systemic pro-inflammatory responses as indicated by less TNF and IL-12p70 secretion in the spleen of VSL#3 pre-treated as compared to non- treated mice. Conclusion Administration of probiotic formulations such as VSL#3 might open up valuable strategies for prophylaxis and/or treatment of C. jejuni induced intestinal and systemic sequelae in vivo by the suppression of pro-inflammatory and induction of anti-inflammatory responses.