Periparturient hypocalcaemia (milk fever) is a disorder of Ca metabolism in dairy cattle primarily affecting multiparous cows. The major reasons for the rapid decrease of blood Ca concentration after calving are the prompt increase of Ca secretion into the colostrum and the delayed activation of Ca regulation mechanisms including calcitriol, a metabolite of vitamin D. In man, vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms are reported to be associated with disturbances of Ca metabolism, whereas data confirming the same in dairy cows are still missing. Moreover, polymorphisms that only affect non-coding regions are sometimes difficult to ascribe to a specific disorder as pathways and unequivocal links remain elusive. Therefore, the idea of the present study was to investigate in a small group of dairy cows with documented clinical records whether polymorphisms in the coding regions of the VDR gene existed and whether these potentially found variations were correlated with the incidence of periparturient hypocalcaemia. For this purpose, blood DNA was isolated from 26 dairy cows in their 4th to 6th lactation, out of which 17 had experienced hypocalcaemia at least once, whereas 9 cows had never undergone periparturient hypocalcaemia in their lifetime. The 10 VDR exons and small parts of adjacent introns were sequenced and compared with the Bos taurus VDR sequence published on NCBI based on the DNA of one Hereford cow. In total, 8 sequence alterations were detected in the fragments, which were primarily heterozygous. However, only 4 of them were really located on exons thereby potentially causing changes of the encoded amino acid of the VDR protein, but were not correlated with the incidence of periparturient hypocalcaemia. Certainly, this lack of statistical correlation could be due to the small number of animals included; anyhow, it was not encouraging enough to initiate a larger study with hundreds of cows and document blood Ca levels post partum for at least four lactations.