Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a ubiquitous bacterium that causes listeriosis, a serious foodborne illness. In the nature-to-human transmission route, Lm can prosper in various ecological niches. Soil and decaying organic matter are its primary reservoirs. Certain clonal complexes (CCs) are over-represented in food production and represent a challenge to food safety. To gain new understanding of Lm adaptation mechanisms in food, the genetic background of strains found in animals and environment should be investigated in comparison to that of food strains. Twenty-one partners, including food, environment, veterinary and public health laboratories, constructed a dataset of 1484 genomes originating from Lm strains collected in 19 European countries. This dataset encompasses a large number of CCs occurring worldwide, covers many diverse habitats and is balanced between ecological compartments and geographic regions. The dataset presented here will contribute to improve our understanding of Lm ecology and should aid in the surveillance of Lm. This dataset provides a basis for the discovery of the genetic traits underlying Lm adaptation to different ecological niches.Weniger anzeigen
The free expansion of a planar plasma surface is a fundamental non-equilibrium process relevant for various fields but as-yet experimentally still difficult to capture. The significance of the associated spatiotemporal plasma motion ranges from astrophysics and controlled fusion to laser machining, surface high-harmonic generation, plasma mirrors, and laser-driven particle acceleration. Here, we show that x-ray coherent diffractive imaging can surpass existing approaches and enables the quantitative real-time analysis of the sudden free expansion of laser-heated nanoplasmas. For laser-ionized SiO2 nanospheres, we resolve the formation of the emerging nearly self-similar plasma profile evolution and expose the so far inaccessible shell-wise expansion dynamics including the associated startup delay and rarefaction front velocity. Our results establish time-resolved diffractive imaging as an accurate quantitative diagnostic platform for tracing and characterizing plasma expansion and indicate the possibility to resolve various laser-driven processes including shock formation and wave-breaking phenomena with unprecedented resolution.Weniger anzeigen
Introduction The World Health Organization’s (WHO) scalable psychological interventions, such as Problem Management Plus (PM+) and Step-by-Step (SbS) are designed to be cost-effective non-specialist delivered interventions to reduce symptoms of common mental disorders, such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The STRENGTHS consortium aims to evaluate the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and implementation of the individual format of PM+ and its group version (gPM+), as well as of the digital SbS intervention among Syrian refugees in seven countries in Europe and the Middle East. This is a study protocol for a prospective individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis to evaluate (1) overall effectiveness and cost-effectiveness and (2) treatment moderators of PM+, gPM+ and SbS with Syrian refugees.
Methods and analysis Five pilot randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and seven fully powered RCTs conducted within STRENGTHS will be combined into one IPD meta-analytic dataset. The RCTs include Syrian refugees of 18 years and above with elevated psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10>15)) and impaired daily functioning (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0>16)). Participants are randomised into the intervention or care as usual control group, and complete follow-up assessments at 1-week, 3-month and 12-month follow-up. Primary outcomes are symptoms of depression and anxiety (25-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist). Secondary outcomes include daily functioning (WHODAS 2.0), PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist for DSM-5) and self-identified problems (PSYCHLOPS). We will conduct a one-stage IPD meta-analysis using linear mixed models. Quality of evidence will be assessed using the GRADE approach, and the economic evaluation approach will be assessed using the CHEC-list.
Ethics and dissemination Local ethical approval has been obtained for each RCT. This IPD meta-analysis does not require ethical approval. The results of this study will be published in international peer-reviewed journals.Weniger anzeigen
We comprehensively investigate two distinct mechanisms leading to memory loss of non-Gaussian correlations after switching off the interactions in an isolated quantum system undergoing out-of-equilibrium dynamics. The first mechanism is based on spatial scrambling and results in the emergence of locally Gaussian steady states in large systems evolving over long times. The second mechanism, characterized as `canonical transmutation', is based on the mixing of a pair of canonically conjugate fields, one of which initially exhibits non-Gaussian fluctuations while the other is Gaussian and dominates the dynamics, resulting in the emergence of relative Gaussianity even at finite system sizes and times. We evaluate signatures of the occurrence of the two candidate mechanisms in a recent experiment that has observed Gaussification in an atom-chip controlled ultracold gas and elucidate evidence that it is canonical transmutation rather than spatial scrambling that is responsible for Gaussification in the experiment. Both mechanisms are shown to share the common feature that the Gaussian correlations revealed dynamically by the quench are already present though practically inaccessible at the initial time. On the way, we present novel observations based on the experimental data, demonstrating clustering of equilibrium correlations, analyzing the dynamics of full counting statistics, and utilizing tomographic reconstructions of quantum field states. Our work aims at providing an accessible presentation of the potential of atom-chip experiments to explore fundamental aspects of quantum field theories in quantum simulations.Weniger anzeigen
The structural and chemical composition of the surface layer (100–140 nm) of niobium radiofrequency cavities operating at cryogenic temperature has enormous impact on their superconducting characteristics. During the last years, cavities treated with a new thermal processing recipe, so-called nitrogen infusion, have demonstrated an increased efficiency and high accelerating gradients. The role and importance of nitrogen gas has been a topic of many debates. In the present work we employ variable-energy synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), to study the niobium surface subjected to the following treatments: vacuum annealing at 800 °C, nitrogen infusion, and vacuum heat treatment as for the infusion process but without nitrogen supply. Careful analysis of XPS energy-distribution curves revealed a slightly increased thickness of the native oxide Nb2O5 for the infused samples (∼3.8 nm) as compared to the annealed one (∼3.5 nm) which indicates insignificant oxygen incorporation into niobium during 120 °C baking and no effect of nitrogen on the formation of oxides or other niobium phases. By conducting an additional in-situ annealing experiment and analyzing the niobium after the failed infusion process, we conclude that the vacuum furnace hygiene particularly during the high-temperature stage is the prerequisite for success of any treatment recipe.Weniger anzeigen
Thermodynamic uncertainty relations express a trade-off between precision, defined as the noise-to-signal ratio of a generic current, and the amount of associated entropy production. These results have deep consequences for autonomous heat engines operating at steady state, imposing an upper bound for their efficiency in terms of the power yield and its fluctuations. In the present Letter we analyze a different class of heat engines, namely, those which are operating in the periodic slow-driving regime. We show that an alternative TUR is satisfied, which is less restrictive than that of steady-state engines: it allows for engines that produce finite power, with small power fluctuations, to operate close to reversibility. The bound further incorporates the effect of quantum fluctuations, which reduces engine efficiency relative to the average power and reliability. We finally illustrate our findings in the experimentally relevant model of a single-ion heat engine.Weniger anzeigen
The relative role of external forcing and of intrinsic variability is a key question of climate variability in general and of our planet's paleoclimatic past in particular. Over the last 100 years since Milankovic's contributions, the importance of orbital forcing has been established for the period covering the last 2.6 Myr and the Quaternary glaciation cycles that took place during that time. A convincing case has also been made for the role of several internal mechanisms that are active on timescales both shorter and longer than the orbital ones. Such mechanisms clearly have a causal role in Dansgaard–Oeschger and Heinrich events, as well as in the mid-Pleistocene transition. We introduce herein a unified framework for the understanding of the orbital forcing's effects on the climate system's internal variability on timescales from thousands to millions of years. This framework relies on the fairly recent theory of non-autonomous and random dynamical systems, and it has so far been successfully applied in the climate sciences for problems like the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, the oceans' wind-driven circulation, and other problems on interannual to interdecadal timescales. Finally, we provide further examples of climate applications and present preliminary results of interest for the Quaternary glaciation cycles in general and the mid-Pleistocene transition in particular.Weniger anzeigen
The reaction of 2,4,6-triaryl-λ3-phosphinine-Cr(CO)3-π-complexes with [Rh(COD)2]BF4 leads to unusual diamagnetic Rh0-dimers, which contain two phosphinine-π-complexes acting as a bridging 2e−-ligand towards the Rh2(CO)2 core. These compounds represent a missing coordination mode for the aromatic 6-membered phosphorus heterocycle.
The directionality of the [N–I–N]+ halogen bond makes iodine(I) ions impeccable tools in the design and construction of [N–I–N]+ halogen-bonded assemblies. The synthesis of dimeric iodine(I) cages with imidazole-derived N-donor tripodal ligands is described, as well as their corresponding silver(I) precursors. The addition of elemental iodine to the parent two-coordinate Ag(I) complexes produces iodine(I) complexes with three-center four-electron (3c–4e) [N–I–N]+ bonds. Complex formation via this cation exchange was confirmed by 1H and 1H–15N HMBC NMR studies in solution, and additionally by electrospray ionisation and ion mobility mass spectrometry analysis (MS) in the gas phase. The structural analysis of the single crystal X-ray structures of 11 silver(I) cages and the computationally modelled iodine(I) cages, along with MS analysis, revealed structural similarities between the two different capsular assemblies. In addition to strong electrostatic interactions, C–H⋯F hydrogen bonds were determined to have a directing effect on the silver(I) cage formation and binding of suitably sized anions into the cavities in the solid state.Weniger anzeigen
Seit Jahrzehnten ist und bleibt die Anzahl von Frauen in der Position des Chief Technology Officer (CTO) niedrig. Das Resultat sind wirtschaftliche und soziale Nachteile sowohl für Unternehmen als auch für die Gesellschaft. Mögliche Ursachen für das ungleiche Geschlechterverhältnis in der IT-Führung beschäftigen Forschung und Praxis gleichermaßen. Da sich etwaige Unterschiede zwischen Männern und Frauen im Hinblick auf Beförderungswürdigkeit oder Ambition nicht biologisch erklären lassen, rücken zunehmend soziale Konstruktionen der CTO-Rolle und ihrer Merkmale in den Fokus. Diese Studie geht der Frage nach, welche geschlechterbezogenen Stereotype in diesem Zusammenhang im deutschsprachigen Raum existieren. Dazu werden qualitative Daten aus 12 Fokusgruppen mittels explorativer Datenanalyse ausgewertet. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die verbreiteten Vorstellungen von einer CTO-Position überwiegend männlich konnotiert sind. In den drei identifizierten Stereotypen spiegelt sich das gesellschaftliche Bild eines männlichen, bereits in jungen Jahren stark geförderten und gut ausgebildeten Ideals wider, welches als Voraussetzung angesehen wird, um die technisch geprägte Führungsrolle erfolgreich ausfüllen zu können. Auf Basis dieser Erkenntnisse werden Handlungsoptionen für Wissenschaft und Praxis diskutiert.Weniger anzeigen
Activation of homogeneous catalysts is an important step in ensuring efficient operation of any catalytic system as a whole. For the majority of pincer catalysts, the activation step leans heavily on the metal ligand cooperative chemistry that allows these complexes to react with small molecule substrates and engage in catalytic transformations. While the majority of such catalysts require a single activation event to become cooperative, herein we report an exception to this trend. Specifically, we demonstrate that a Ru-PN3P aminopyridine pincer catalyst, which lacks conventional reactivity with hydrogen upon typical one-fold activation, can exhibit this reactivity when a sequential two-step activation is performed. The resulting anionic complexes readily activate molecular hydrogen and react further with CO2 showing the previously unknown reactivity that is critical for CO2 hydrogenation catalysts. While active in CO2 hydrogenation, Ru-PN3Ps are significantly more efficient in hydrogenation of bicarbonates – a likely consequence of the chemistry of these pincers requiring formation of anionic complexes for hydrogen activation.Weniger anzeigen
We discuss a new memory-efficient depth-first algorithm and its implementation that iterates over all elements of a finite locally branched lattice. This algorithm can be applied to face lattices of polyhedra and to various generalizations such as finite polyhedral complexes and subdivisions of manifolds, extended tight spans and closed sets of matroids. Its practical implementation is very fast compared to state-of-the-art implementations of previously considered algorithms. Based on recent work of Bruns, García-Sánchez, O’Neill, and Wilburne, we apply this algorithm to prove Wilf’s conjecture for all numerical semigroups of multiplicity 19 by iterating through the faces of the Kunz cone and identifying the possible bad faces and then checking that these do not yield counterexamples to Wilf’s conjecture.Weniger anzeigen
1. Plant below-ground organs perform essential functions, including water and nutrient uptake, anchorage, vegetative reproduction and recruitment of mutualistic soil microbiota. Recently, multivariate analyses showed that root traits of species can largely be linked to a ‘conservation’ and a ‘collaboration’ gradient. Here, we tested whether this species-level bidimensional below-ground trait space also exists at the community level in grasslands. Furthermore, we tested whether the position of grassland communities in below-ground trait space relates to environmental variables. 2. For a total of 313 species, we collected data on eight below-ground traits in greenhouse and common garden experiments and supplemented it with data on bud-bank size and specific leaf area from databases. We calculated community weighted means (CWMs) of these 10 traits for 150 temperate grassland plots to investigate below-ground plant-trait dimensionality and its variation along 10 soil and land-use parameters. 3. Using PCA, we found that about 55% of variance in CWMs was explained by two main dimensions, corresponding to a mycorrhizal ‘collaboration’ and a resource ‘conservation’ gradient. Frequently overlooked traits such as rooting depth, bud-bank size and root-branching intensity were largely integrated in this trait space. The two plant-strategy gradients were partially dependent on each other, with communities that do ‘outsourcing’ of resource uptake to mycorrhizal fungi along the collaboration gradient also being more ‘slow’ along the conservation gradient. (i.e. high root tissue density and high root weight ratio). ‘Outsourcing’ communities were also more often deep rooting and associated with soil parameters, such as low moisture and sand content, high topsoil pH, high C:N and low δ15N. ‘Slow’ communities had large bud banks and were associated with low land-use intensity, high topsoil pH and low nitrate but high ammonium concentration in the soil. Surprisingly, we did not find an association of phosphorus availability with the mycorrhizal ‘collaboration’ gradient. 4. Synthesis. The ‘collaboration’ and ‘conservation’ gradients previously identified among species scale up to the community level in grasslands, encompass more traits than previously described, and vary with the environment.Weniger anzeigen
Efficient terahertz generation and detection are a key prerequisite for high performance terahertz systems. Major advancements in realizing efficient terahertz emitters and detectors were enabled through photonics-driven semiconductor devices, thanks to the extremely wide bandwidth available at optical frequencies. Through the efficient generation and ultrafast transport of charge carriers within a photo-absorbing semiconductor material, terahertz frequency components are created from the mixing products of the optical frequency components that drive the terahertz device – a process usually referred to as photomixing. The created terahertz frequency components, which are in the physical form of oscillating carrier concentrations, can feed a terahertz antenna and get radiated in case of a terahertz emitter, or mix with an incoming terahertz wave to down-convert to DC or to a low frequency photocurrent in case of a terahertz detector. Realizing terahertz photoconductors typically relies on short-carrier-lifetime semiconductors as the photo-absorbing material, where photocarriers are quickly trapped within one picosecond or less after generation, leading to ultrafast carrier dynamics that facilitates high-frequency device operation. However, while enabling broadband operation, a sub-picosecond lifetime of the photocarriers results in a substantial loss of photoconductive gain and optical responsivity. In addition, growth of short-carrier-lifetime semiconductors in many cases relies on the use of rare elements and non-standard processes with limited accessibility. Therefore, there is a strong motivation to explore and develop alternative techniques for realizing terahertz photomixers that do not rely on these defect-introduced short-carrier-lifetime semiconductors. This review will provide an overview of several promising approaches to realize terahertz emitters and detectors without short-carrier-lifetime semiconductors. These novel approaches utilize p-i-n diode junctions, plasmonic nanostructures, ultrafast spintronics, and low-dimensional materials to offer ultrafast carrier response. These innovative directions have great potentials for extending the applicability and accessibility of the terahertz spectrum for a wide range of applications.Weniger anzeigen
As decision-making increasingly relies on machine learning (ML) and (big) data, the issue of fairness in data-driven artificial intelligence systems is receiving increasing attention from both research and industry. A large variety of fairness-aware ML solutions have been proposed which involve fairness-related interventions in the data, learning algorithms, and/or model outputs. However, a vital part of proposing new approaches is evaluating them empirically on benchmark datasets that represent realistic and diverse settings. Therefore, in this paper, we overview real-world datasets used for fairness-aware ML. We focus on tabular data as the most common data representation for fairness-aware ML. We start our analysis by identifying relationships between the different attributes, particularly with respect to protected attributes and class attribute, using a Bayesian network. For a deeper understanding of bias in the datasets, we investigate interesting relationships using exploratory analysis.Weniger anzeigen
Bioelectronics are powerful tools for monitoring and stimulating biological and biochemical processes, with applications ranging from neural interface simulation to biosensing. The increasing demand for bioelectronics has greatly promoted the development of new nanomaterials as detection platforms. Recently, owing to their ultrathin structures and excellent physicochemical properties, emerging two-dimensional (2D) materials have become one of the most researched areas in the fields of bioelectronics and biosensors. In this timely review, the physicochemical structures of the most representative emerging 2D materials and the design of their nanostructures for engineering high-performance bioelectronic and biosensing devices are presented. We focus on the structural optimization of emerging 2D material-based composites to achieve better regulation for enhancing the performance of bioelectronics. Subsequently, the recent developments of emerging 2D materials in bioelectronics, such as neural interface simulation, biomolecular/biomarker detection, and skin sensors are discussed thoroughly. Finally, we provide conclusive views on the current challenges and future perspectives on utilizing emerging 2D materials and their composites for bioelectronics and biosensors. This review will offer important guidance in designing and applying emerging 2D materials in bioelectronics, thus further promoting their prospects in a wide biomedical field.Weniger anzeigen
Belief systems matter for all kinds of human social interaction. People have individual cognitions and feelings concerning processes in their environment, which is why they may evaluate them differently. Belief systems can be visualized with cognitive-affective maps (CAMs; as reported by Thagard (in: McGregor (ed) EMPATHICA: A computer support system with visual representations for cognitive-affective mapping, AAAI Press, CA, 2010)). However, it is unclear whether CAMs can be constructed in an intersubjective way by different researchers attempting to map the beliefs of a third party based on qualitative text data. To scrutinize this question, we combined qualitative strategies and quantitative methods of text and network analysis in a case study examining belief networks about participation. Our data set consists of 10 sets of two empirical CAMs: the first CAM was created based on participants’ freely associating concepts related to participation in education (N = 10), the second one was created based on given text data which the participants represented as a CAM following a standardized instruction manual (N = 10). Both CAM-types were compared along three dimensions of similarity (network similarity, concept association similarity, affective similarity). On all dimensions of similarity, there was substantially higher intersubjective agreement in the text-based CAMs than in the free CAMs, supporting the viability of cognitive affective mapping as an intersubjective research method for studying the emotional coherence of belief systems and discursive knowledge. In addition, this study highlights the potential for identifying group-level differences based on how participants associate concepts.Weniger anzeigen
Background and Objectives
A quantitative evaluation of the PK of meropenem, a broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic, in plasma and interstitial space fluid (ISF) of subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese patients is lacking as of date. The objective of this study was the characterisation of meropenem population pharmacokinetics in plasma and ISF in obese and non-obese patients for identification of adequate dosing regimens via Monte-Carlo simulations. Methods
We obtained plasma and microdialysate concentrations after administration of meropenem 1000 mg to 15 obese and 15 non-obese surgery patients from a prospective clinical trial. After characterizing plasma- and microdialysis-derived ISF pharmacokinetics via population pharmacokinetic analysis, we simulated thrice-daily (TID) meropenem short-term (0.5 h), prolonged (3.0 h), and continuous infusions. Adequacy of therapy was assessed by the probability of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target attainment (PTA) analysis based on time unbound concentrations exceeded minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) on treatment day 1 (%fT > MIC) and the sum of PTA weighted by relative frequency of MIC values for infections by pathogens commonly treated with meropenem. To avoid interstitial tissue fluid concentrations below MIC for the entire dosing interval during continuous infusions, a more conservative PK/PD index was selected (%fT > 4 × MIC).
Adjusted body weight (ABW) and calculated creatinine clearance (CLCRCG_ABW) of all patients (body mass index [BMI] = 20.5–81.5 kg/m2) explained a considerable proportion of the between-patient pharmacokinetic variability (15.1–31.0% relative reduction). The ISF:plasma ratio of %fT > MIC was relatively similar for MIC ≤ 2 mg/L but decreased for MIC = 8 mg/L over ABW = 60–120 kg (0.50–0.20). Steady-state concentrations were 2.68 times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.11–3.37) higher in plasma than in ISF, supporting PK/PD targets related to four times the MIC during continuous infusions to avoid suspected ISF concentrations constantly below the MIC. A 3000 mg/24 h continuous infusion was sufficient at MIC = 2 mg/L for patients with CLCRCG_ABW ≤ 100 mL/min and ABW < 90 kg, whereas 2000 mg TID prolonged infusions were adequate for those with CLCRCG_ABW ≤ 100 mL/min and ABW > 90 kg. For MIC = 2 mg/L and %fT> MIC = 95, PTA was adequate in patients over the entire investigated range of body mass and renal function using a 6000 mg continuous infusion. A prolonged infusion of meropenem 2000 mg TID was sufficient for MIC ≤ 8 mg/L and all investigated ABW and CLCRCG_ABW when employing the PK/PD target %fT > MIC = 40. Short-term infusions of 1000 mg TID were sufficient for CLCRCG_ABW ≤ 130 mL/min and distributions of MIC values for Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae but not for Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
This analysis indicated a need for higher doses (≥ 2000 mg) and prolonged infusions (≥ 3 h) for obese and non-obese patients at MIC ≥ 2 mg/L. Higher PTA was achieved with prolonged infusions in obese patients and with continuous infusions in non-obese patients.Weniger anzeigen
Glycerol-based epoxy networks have great potential for surface functionalization, providing anti-microbial and protein repellant function. However, the synthesis of glycerol glycidyl ether (GGE) monomer often requires excessive epichlorohydrin (ECH). ECH derived organochloride containing byproducts from monomer production maybe present in the eluent of the polymer networks prepared by cationic ring-opening polymerization. Here, the cytotoxicity analysis revealed cell damages in contact with the polyGGE eluent. The occurrence of organochlorides, which was predicted based on the data from high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, as confirmed by a constant chloride level in GGE and polyGGE, and by a specific peak of C–Cl in infrared spectra of GGE. The resulting polyGGE was densely crosslinked, which possibly contribute to the trapping of organochlorides. These results provide a valuable information for exploring the toxins leaching from polyGGE and propose a feasible strategy for minimizing the cytotoxicity via reducing their crosslink density.Weniger anzeigen
Electrically controllable deoxyribonuclic acid (DNA) nanolevers are used to investigate the binding interaction between Influenza A/Aichi/2/1968 and the peptide called “PeB”, which specifically binds the viral surface protein hemagglutinin. PeB is immobilized on gold electrodes of a “switchSENSE” biochip by conjugation to DNA-strands that are hybridized to complementary anchors. The surface-tethered DNA strand carries a fluorophore while the complementary strand is a multivalent arrangement carrying up to three PeB peptides. The nanolevers are kept upright (static) by applying a negative potential. Signal read-out for this static measurement mode is the change in fluorescence intensity due to changes in the local environment of the dye upon binding. Measurements of virus-peptide interaction show that the virus material specifically binds to the immobilized peptides and remains bound throughout the measurement time. Immobilized viruses are subsequently used as ligands to characterize oligovalent peptide binding to hemagglutinin, revealing rate constants of the interaction. Moreover, three Influenza A subtypes are compared in their binding behavior. Overall, this paper shows the ability to immobilize virus material on a sensor surface, which allows to target virus-proteins in their native environment. The “switchSENSE” method is therefore applicable to characterize virus-receptor interactions.Weniger anzeigen