For at least two decades, nanoparticles have been investigated for their capability to deliver topically applied substances through the skin barrier. Based on findings that nanoparticles are highly suitable for penetrating the blood–brain barrier, their use for drug delivery through the skin has become a topic of intense research. In spite of the research efforts by academia and industry, a commercial product permitting the nanoparticle-assisted delivery of topically applied drugs has not yet been developed. However, nanoparticles of approximately 600 nm in diameter have been shown to penetrate efficiently into the hair follicles, where they can be stored for several days. The successful loading of nanoparticles with drugs and their triggered release inside the hair follicle may present an ideal method for localized drug delivery. Depending on the particle size, such a method would permit targeting specific structures in the hair follicles such as stem cells or immune cells or blood vessels found in the vicinity of the hair follicles.