Halide perovskite-based photon upconverters utilize perovskite thin films to sensitize triplet exciton formation in a small-molecule layer, driving triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion. Despite having excellent carrier mobility, these systems suffer from inefficient triplet formation at the perovskite/annihilator interface. We studied triplet formation in formamidinium-methylammonium lead iodide/rubrene bilayers using photoluminescence and surface photovoltage methods. By studying systems constructed on glass as well as hole-selective substrates, comprising self-assembled layers of the carbazole derivative 2PACz ([2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethyl]phosphonic acid) on indium-doped tin oxide, we saw how changes in the carrier dynamics induced by the hole-selective substrate perturbed triplet formation at the perovskite/rubrene interface. We propose that an internal electric field, caused by hole transfer at the perovskite/rubrene interface, strongly affects triplet exciton formation, accelerating exciton-forming electron-hole encounters at the interface but also limiting the hole density in rubrene at high excitation densities. Controlling this field is a promising path to improving triplet formation in perovskite/annihilator upconverters.