Cryo-soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT) is a powerful method to investigate the ultrastructure of cells, offering resolution in the tens of nm range and strong contrast for membranous structures without requirement for labeling or chemical fixation. The short acquisition time and the relatively large volumes acquired allow for fast acquisition of large amounts of tomographic image data. Segmentation of these data into accessible features is a necessary step in gaining biologically relevant information from cryo-soft X-ray tomograms. However, manual image segmentation still requires several orders of magnitude more time than data acquisition. To address this challenge, we have here developed an end-to-end automated 3D-segmentation pipeline based on semi-supervised deep learning. Our approach is suitable for high-throughput analysis of large amounts of tomographic data, while being robust when faced with limited manual annotations and variations in the tomographic conditions. We validate our approach by extracting three-dimensional information on cellular ultrastructure and by quantifying nanoscopic morphological parameters of filopodia in mammalian cells.