Objectives: To assess the discriminatory power of lexicon terms used in PI-RADS version 2 to describe MRI features of prostate lesions.
Methods: Four hundred fifty-four patients were included in this retrospective, institutional review board-approved study. Patients received multiparametric (mp) MRI and subsequent prostate biopsy including MRI/transrectal ultrasound fusion biopsy and 10-core systematic biopsy. PI-RADS lexicon terms describing lesion characteristics on mpMRI were assigned to lesions by experienced readers. Positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) of each lexicon term were assessed using biopsy results as a reference standard.
Results: From a total of 501 lesions, clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) was present in 175 lesions (34.9%). Terms related to findings of restricted diffusion showed PPVs of up to 52.0%/43.9% and NPV of up to 91.8%/89.7% (peripheral zone or PZ/transition zone or TZ). T2-weighted imaging (T2W)-related terms showed a wide range of predictive values. For PZ lesions, high PPVs were found for "markedly hypointense," "lenticular," "lobulated," and "spiculated" (PPVs between 67.2 and 56.7%). For TZ lesions, high PPVs were found for "water-drop-shaped" and "erased charcoal sign" (78.6% and 61.0%). The terms "encapsulated," "organized chaos," and "linear" showed to be good predictors for benignity with distinctively low PPVs between 5.4 and 6.9%. Most T2WI-related terms showed improved predictive values for TZ lesions when combined with DWI-related findings.
Conclusions: Lexicon terms with high discriminatory power were identified (e.g., "markedly hypointense," "water-drop-shaped," "organized chaos"). DWI-related terms can be useful for excluding TZ cancer. Combining T2WI- with DWI findings in TZ lesions markedly improved predictive values.