Mounting evidence argues for the significant impact of sex in numerous cardiac pathologies, including myocarditis. Macrophage polarization and activation of cardiac fibroblasts play a key role in myocardial inflammation and remodeling. However, the role of sex in these processes is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated sex-specific alterations in the polarization of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and the polarization-related changes in fibroblast activation. Cultured male and female murine BMMs from C57/BL6J mice were polarized into M1 (LPS) and M2 (IL-4/IL-13) macrophages. Furthermore, male and female cardiac fibroblasts from C57/BL6J mice were activated with TNF-α, TGF-β, or conditioned medium from M1 BMMs. We found a significant overexpression of M1 markers (c-fos, NFκB, TNF-α, and IL-1β) and M2 markers (MCP-1 and YM1) in male but not female activated macrophages. In addition, the ROS levels were higher in M1 male BMMs, indicating a stronger polarization. Similarly, the pro-fibrotic markers TGF-β and IL-1β were expressed in activated cardiac male fibroblasts at a significantly higher level than in female fibroblasts. In conclusion, the present study provides strong evidence for the male-specific polarization of BMMs and activation of cardiac fibroblasts in an inflammatory environment. The data show an increased inflammatory response and tissue remodeling in male mice.
bone marrow macrophages
600 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften::610 Medizin und Gesundheit::610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Male Macrophages and Fibroblasts from C57/BL6J Mice Are More Susceptible to Inflammatory Stimuli
Frontiers in Immunology
Frontiers Media SA
Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin