Groundwater recharge estimation is essential for sustainable water management and water supply schemes. In this paper, we review groundwater recharge estimation techniques and identify the appropriate methods by considering India’s hydrological and climatic conditions. Significant components of recharge, factors affecting groundwater recharge, aquifer systems of India, and historical groundwater recharge estimation practices are reviewed. Currently used recharge estimation methods are assessed based on case studies. The most popular estimation methods are studied and compared based on their application in various regions. It is observed that the accuracy of the recharge estimates is largely influenced by false assumptions, the possibility of erroneous measurements, a potential lack of reliable data, and a variety of problems associated with parameter estimation. The suitability of different methods for a region is found to depend on time and space considerations, the objective of the study, hydrogeological condition, and availability of data. In Indian conditions, it is suggested to use water table fluctuation and water balance methods for the recharge estimation, provided that accurate water level measurements are assured.