Cleft alveolar bone defects can be treated potentially with tissue engineered bone grafts. Herein, we developed novel biphasic bone constructs consisting of two clinically certified materials, a calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and a fibrin gel that were biofabricated using 3D plotting. The fibrin gel was loaded with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) derived from bone marrow. Firstly, the degradation of fibrin as well as the behavior of cells in the biphasic system were evaluated in vitro. Fibrin degraded quickly in presence of MSC. Our results showed that the plotted CPC structure acted slightly stabilizing for the fibrin gel. However, with passing time and fibrin degradation, MSC migrated to the CPC surface. Thus, the fibrin gel could be identified as cell delivery system. A pilot study in vivo was conducted in artificial craniofacial defects in Lewis rats. Ongoing bone formation could be evidenced over 12 weeks but the biphasic constructs were not completely osseous integrated. Nevertheless, our results show that the combination of 3D plotted CPC constructs and fibrin as suitable cell delivery system enables the fabrication of novel regenerative implants for the treatment of alveolar bone defects.