Our objective was to investigate the level of endometrial immune response at artificial insemination (AI) and to relate it to subsequent fertility. From 71 healthy cows, endometrial cytobrush samples were taken at the first AI for cytological and mRNA analyses. Total RNA isolated from the cytobrushes was used for reverse transcription qPCR for selected transcripts. Animals were grouped into pregnant (PREG; n = 32) and non-pregnant (non-PREG; n = 39) cows following their first AI. The mRNA abundance of the neutrophil-related factor CEACAM1 and the chemokine CXCL5 was 1.2- (p = 0.03) and 2.0-fold (p = 0.04) greater in PREG than in non-PREG cows, respectively. Animals were further subdivided according to the number of inseminations until pregnancy (PREG1, n = 32; PREG2-3, n = 19) and in repeat breeder cows (RBC, n = 13). CEACAM1 and CXCL8 mRNA expression was 1.7- (p = 0.01) and 2.3-fold (p = 0.03) greater in PREG1 than in RBC, respectively. Cox regression showed that cows with PMN ≥ 1% had a 1.8-fold increased chance of pregnancy within 150 days postpartum compared with cows with fewer PMNs. We conclude that a certain level of inflammation before the stimulus of AI might be beneficial for subsequent fertility.