Background: Despite concerns about causing bacterial resistance and serious side effects, oral cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones are still frequently prescribed in Germany. We aimed to test a method for the detection of regional quality differences in the use of oral cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and to apply this to the German federal states. Methods: Use of antibiotics from 2014–2019 was analyzed using dispensing data from community pharmacies claimed to the statutory health insurance (SHI) funds. Quality of regional antibiotic use in 2019 was assessed by calculating indicators based on defined daily doses per 1000 SHI-insured persons per day (DID). Oral cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone use was followed by linear regression analyses. Results: The method used was suitable to find meaningful quality differences in ambulatory oral cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone use between the German federal states. In 2019, DID varied from 1.62 in Brandenburg to 3.17 in Rhineland-Palatinate for cephalosporins and from 0.47 in Brandenburg to 0.89 in Saarland for fluoroquinolones. The city-states Hamburg, Bremen, and Berlin showed highest quality with the applied indicator set. From 2014–2019, a significant decrease in utilization of oral cephalosporins was found in all federal states. During 2017–2019, all states showed a significant decline of fluoroquinolone use.