The epidermal cell layer of plants has important functions in regulating plant growth and development. We have studied the impact of an altered epidermal cytokinin metabolism on Arabidopsis shoot development. Increased epidermal cytokinin synthesis or breakdown was achieved through expression of the cytokinin synthesis gene LOG4 and the cytokinin-degrading CKX1 gene, respectively, under the control of the epidermis-specific AtML1 promoter. During vegetative growth, increased epidermal cytokinin production caused an increased size of the shoot apical meristem and promoted earlier flowering. Leaves became larger and the shoots showed an earlier juvenile-to-adult transition. An increased cytokinin breakdown had the opposite effect on these phenotypic traits indicating that epidermal cytokinin metabolism can be a factor regulating these aspects of shoot development. The phenotypic consequences of abbreviated cytokinin signaling in the epidermis achieved through expression of the ARR1-SRDX repressor were generally milder or even absent indicating that the epidermal cytokinin acts, at least in part, cell non-autonomously. Enhanced epidermal cytokinin synthesis delayed cell differentiation during leaf development leading to an increased cell proliferation and leaf growth. Genetic analysis showed that this cytokinin activity was mediated mainly by the AHK3 receptor and the transcription factor ARR1. We also demonstrate that epidermal cytokinin promotes leaf growth in a largely cell-autonomous fashion. Increased cytokinin synthesis in the outer layer of reproductive tissues and in the placenta enhanced ovule formation by the placenta and caused the formation of larger siliques. This led to a higher number of seeds in larger pods resulting in an increased seed yield per plant. Collectively, the results provide evidence that the cytokinin metabolism in the epidermis is a relevant parameter determining vegetative and reproductive plant growth and development.