A sustainable economy fulfills societal needs in a fundamentally different way to the current economic system. Improvements to the efficiency of existing technologies or practices appear insufficient for achieving sustainable development within the planetary boundaries. Disruptive, systemic and transformational changes appear necessary in order to replace existing technologies and practices to establish a sustainable economy. Such innovations often start out in niches; however, the scaling up and the ultimate replacement of current socio-technical systems requires governance to allow for the coordination of actors, the reorganization of socio-technical systems and the mobilization and allocation of resources. As governmental institutions are part of the current (non-sustainable) systems and thereby fail to provide coherent, integrated and transformative governance, we explore whether institutional innovation from non-state actors can step in to provide governance of transformation processes. Based on explorative qualitative case studies of networks in the food sector, city planning and reporting tools, we analyze the potential of bottom-up institutional innovations to coordinate actors in transformation processes.View less
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and has to cope with reactive oxygen and chlorine species (ROS, RCS) during infections. The low molecular weight thiol bacillithiol (BSH) is an important defense mechanism of S. aureus for detoxification of ROS and HOCl stress to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm. Under HOCl stress, BSH forms mixed disulfides with proteins, termed as S-bacillithiolations, which are reduced by bacilliredoxins (BrxA and BrxB). The NADPH-dependent flavin disulfide reductase YpdA is phylogenetically associated with the BSH synthesis and BrxA/B enzymes and was recently suggested to function as BSSB reductase (Mikheyeva et al., 2019). Here, we investigated the role of the complete bacilliredoxin BrxAB/BSH/YpdA pathway in S. aureus COL under oxidative stress and macrophage infection conditions in vivo and in biochemical assays in vitro. Using HPLC thiol metabolomics, a strongly enhanced BSSB level and a decreased BSH/BSSB ratio were measured in the S. aureus COL ypdA deletion mutant under control and NaOCl stress. Monitoring the oxidation degree (OxD) of the Brx-roGFP2 biosensor revealed that YpdA is required for regeneration of the reduced BSH redox potential (EBSH) upon recovery from oxidative stress. In addition, the ypdA mutant was impaired in H2O2 detoxification as measured with the novel H2O2-specific Tpx-roGFP2 biosensor. Phenotype analyses further showed that BrxA and YpdA are required for survival under NaOCl and H2O2 stress in vitro and inside murine J-774A.1 macrophages in infection assays in vivo. Finally, NADPH-coupled electron transfer assays provide evidence for the function of YpdA in BSSB reduction, which depends on the conserved Cys14 residue. YpdA acts together with BrxA and BSH in de-bacillithiolation of S-bacillithiolated GapDH. In conclusion, our results point to a major role of the BrxA/BSH/YpdA pathway in BSH redox homeostasis in S. aureus during recovery from oxidative stress and under infections.View less
To get a job as a seafarer in the global maritime industry, thousands of male Filipino youths work for free as ‘utility men’ for manning agencies that supply seafarers to ship operators around the world. Based on ethnographic fieldwork and approached from a moral economy perspective, this article examines how manning agencies and utility men differentially rationalize this exploitative work (utility manning). Manning agencies use it as a technology of servitude that, through physical and verbal abuse and other techniques, enforces docility to prepare utility men for the harsher conditions on-board a ship. In contrast, utility men use it as a technology of imagination, gleaning from it a capacity to shape their future. Faced with few social possibilities in the Philippines, they deploy servitude as a strategy for attaining economic mobility and male adulthood.View less
Contaminated honey is a common cause of grayanotoxin intoxication in humans. Intoxication of animals, especially cattle, is usually due to ingestion of plants of the Ericaceae family, such as Rhododendron. Here, we report the ingestion of Pieris japonica as the cause of grayanotoxin I intoxication in 2 miniature pigs that were kept as pets. The pigs showed sudden onset of pale oral mucosa, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypersalivation, tremor, and ataxia that progressed to lateral recumbency. The pathological examination of one pig revealed no specific indications for intoxication except for the finding of plant material of Pieris japonica in the intestine. Grayanotoxin I was identified in the ingested plant, gastric content, blood, liver, bile, kidney, urine, lung, and skeletal muscle via HPLC-MS/MS. Grayanotoxin I should be considered as a differential etiological diagnosis in pigs with unspecific signs and discovery of ingested plant material as the only indication in the pathologic examination.View less
Ever since Evo Morales Ayma became Bolivia's first indigenous president in 2006 and the promulgation of a human-rights-enhancing Constitution (2009) thereafter, indigenous peoples’ rights were gradually recognised. Yet, with the increasing demand for natural resources, indigenous communities have been adversely affected by the state's neo-extractivist policies. While global indigenous rights norms protect their fundamental rights, legal-implementation processes in the country's lowlands reveal dilemmas in terms of the value of laws in practice as well as its reinterpretation on the ground. Namely, in the communities, different positions and camps have emerged in terms of the role and functions of participatory rights. Despite the potential of the latter in strengthening collective-rights regimes and self-determination, community leaders, advisers and other members report how such processes fracture and weaken decision-making mechanisms and human rights claims.View less
We study the ion density, shear viscosity and electroosmotic mobility of an aqueous monovalent electrolyte at a charged solid surface using molecular dynamics simulations. Upon increasing the surface charge density, ions are displaced first from the diffuse layer to the outer Helmholtz layer, increasing its viscosity, and subsequently to the hydrodynamically stagnant inner Helmholtz layer. The ion redistribution causes both charge inversion and reversal of the electroosmotic mobility. Because of the surface-charge dependent interfacial hydrodynamic properties, however, the charge density of mobility reversal differs from the charge density of charge inversion, depending on the salt concentration and the chemical details of the ions and the surface. Mobility reversal cannot be described by an effective slip boundary condition alone – the spatial dependence of the viscosity is essential.View less
Two computational studies provide different sentiment analyses for text segments (e.g., ‘fearful’ passages) and figures (e.g., ‘Voldemort’) from the Harry Potter books (Rowling, 1997 - 2007) based on a novel simple tool called SentiArt. The tool uses vector space models together with theory-guided, empirically validated label lists to compute the valence of each word in a text by locating its position in a 2d emotion potential space spanned by the > 2 million words of the vector space model. After testing the tool’s accuracy with empirical data from a neurocognitive study, it was applied to compute emotional figure profiles and personality figure profiles (inspired by the so-called ‚big five’ personality theory) for main characters from the book series. The results of comparative analyses using different machine-learning classifiers (e.g., AdaBoost, Neural Net) show that SentiArt performs very well in predicting the emotion potential of text passages. It also produces plausible predictions regarding the emotional and personality profile of fiction characters which are correctly identified on the basis of eight character features, and it achieves a good cross-validation accuracy in classifying 100 figures into ‘good’ vs. ‘bad’ ones. The results are discussed with regard to potential applications of SentiArt in digital literary, applied reading and neurocognitive poetics studies such as the quantification of the hybrid hero potential of figures.View less
We analyzed how often and in what ways the Journal Impact Factor (JIF) is currently used in review, promotion, and tenure (RPT) documents of a representative sample of universities from the United States and Canada. 40% of research-intensive institutions and 18% of master’s institutions mentioned the JIF, or closely related terms. Of the institutions that mentioned the JIF, 87% supported its use in at least one of their RPT documents, 13% expressed caution about its use, and none heavily criticized it or prohibited its use. Furthermore, 63% of institutions that mentioned the JIF associated the metric with quality, 40% with impact, importance, or significance, and 20% with prestige, reputation, or status. We conclude that use of the JIF is encouraged in RPT evaluations, especially at research-intensive universities, and that there is work to be done to avoid the potential misuse of metrics like the JIF.View less
The ocean is key to understanding societal threats including climate change, sea level rise, ocean warming, tsunamis, and earthquakes. Because the ocean is difficult and costly to monitor, we lack fundamental data needed to adequately model, understand, and address these threats. One solution is to integrate sensors into future undersea telecommunications cables. This is the mission of the SMART subsea cables initiative (Science Monitoring And Reliable Telecommunications). SMART sensors would “piggyback” on the power and communications infrastructure of a million kilometers of undersea fiber optic cable and thousands of repeaters, creating the potential for seafloor-based global ocean observing at a modest incremental cost. Initial sensors would measure temperature, pressure, and seismic acceleration. The resulting data would address two critical scientific and societal issues: the long-term need for sustained climate-quality data from the under-sampled ocean (e.g., deep ocean temperature, sea level, and circulation), and the near-term need for improvements to global tsunami warning networks. A Joint Task Force (JTF) led by three UN agencies (ITU/WMO/UNESCO-IOC) is working to bring this initiative to fruition. This paper explores the ocean science and early warning improvements available from SMART cable data, and the societal, technological, and financial elements of realizing such a global network. Simulations show that deep ocean temperature and pressure measurements can improve estimates of ocean circulation and heat content, and cable-based pressure and seismic-acceleration sensors can improve tsunami warning times and earthquake parameters. The technology of integrating these sensors into fiber optic cables is discussed, addressing sea and land-based elements plus delivery of real-time open data products to end users. The science and business case for SMART cables is evaluated. SMART cables have been endorsed by major ocean science organizations, and JTF is working with cable suppliers and sponsors, multilateral development banks and end users to incorporate SMART capabilities into future cable projects. By investing now, we can build up a global ocean network of long-lived SMART cable sensors, creating a transformative addition to the Global Ocean Observing System.View less
Sensory circuits are typically established during early development, yet how circuit specificity and function are maintained during organismal growth has not been elucidated. To gain insight we quantitatively investigated synaptic growth and connectivity in the Drosophila nociceptive network during larval development. We show that connectivity between primary nociceptors and their downstream neurons scales with animal size. We further identified the conserved Ste20-like kinase Tao as a negative regulator of synaptic growth required for maintenance of circuit specificity and connectivity. Loss of Tao kinase resulted in exuberant postsynaptic specializations and aberrant connectivity during larval growth. Using functional imaging and behavioral analysis we show that loss of Tao-induced ectopic synapses with inappropriate partner neurons are functional and alter behavioral responses in a connection-specific manner. Our data show that fine-tuning of synaptic growth by Tao kinase is required for maintaining specificity and behavioral output of the neuronal network during animal growth.View less
Reading proficiency, i.e., successfully integrating early word-based information and utilizing this information in later processes of sentence and text comprehension, and its assessment is subject to extensive research. However, screening tests for German adults across the life span are basically non-existent. Therefore, the present article introduces a standardized computerized sentence-based screening measure for German adult readers to assess reading proficiency including norm data from 2,148 participants covering an age range from 16 to 88 years. The test was developed in accordance with the children’s version of the Salzburger LeseScreening (SLS, Wimmer and Mayringer, 2014). The SLS-Berlin has a high reliability and can easily be implemented in any research setting using German language. We present a detailed description of the test and report the distribution of SLS-Berlin scores for the norm sample as well as for two subsamples of younger (below 60 years) and older adults (60 and older). For all three samples, we conducted regression analyses to investigate the relationship between sentence characteristics and SLS-Berlin scores. In a second validation study, SLS-Berlin scores were compared with two (pseudo)word reading tests, a test measuring attention and processing speed and eye-movements recorded during expository text reading. Our results confirm the SLS-Berlin’s sensitivity to capture early word decoding and later text related comprehension processes. The test distinguished very well between skilled and less skilled readers and also within less skilled readers and is therefore a powerful and efficient screening test for German adults to assess interindividual levels of reading proficiency.View less
Primary infection and pathogenesis of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) require an intricate interaction of virus with the mucosal epithelium, mononuclear cells and the vascular endothelium. Studies on EHV-1 have been facilitated by the development of different in vitro models that recapitulate the in vivo tissue complexity. The available in vitro assays can be categorized into (i) models mimicking the epithelium-peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) interaction, which include ex vivo mucosal (nasal and vaginal) explants and equine respiratory epithelial cells (EREC) cultures; and (ii) PBMC-endothelium mimicking models, including flow chamber and contact assays. These in vitro models have proven their worth in attempts to recapitulate the in vivo architecture and complexity, produce data relevant to natural host infection, and reduce animal use due to in vivo experiments. Although horse models are still needed for certain experiments, e.g., EHV-1 myeloencephalopathy or vaccination studies, available in vitro models can be used to obtain highly valuable data on virus-host tissue interactions. Microfluidic based 3D culture system (e.g., horse-on-a-chip) could be a potential upgraded version of these in vitro models for future research.View less
Con cierto orgullo, en un catálogo de la colección “Obras representativas” publicado al comienzo del nuevo milenio, la UNESCO dio a conocer un balance impresionante: una lista de más de 1300 obras literarias que provienen de más de 80 países diferentes y de cerca de 100 lenguas originales. Desde el año 1948 y gracias a los programas de cooperación e intercambio cultural, se traducen bajo los auspicios de la UNESCO obras de la literatura mundial que se publican generalmente en colaboración con editoriales del mundo entero. El catálogo de octubre del 2000 no solamente ilustra el resultado notable de uno de los proyectos de traducción literaria más amplios y ambiciosos sino que permite también, mirando más de cerca los títulos y las fechas de publicación, formarse una idea sobre el concepto universalista, la historia y la extensión de la empresa que se propone divulgar “works of literary and cultural importance that are nevertheless not very well known outside their original national boundaries or linguistic communities” (Collection UNESCO... 2000: 13).View less
Field localization by nanostructures illuminated with laser pulses of well-defined waveform enables spatio-temporal tailoring of the near-fields for sub-cycle control of electron dynamics at the nanoscale. Here, we apply intense linearly-polarized two-color laser pulses for all-optical control of the highest energy electron emission from SiO2 nanoparticles. For the size regime where light propagation effects become important, we demonstrate the possibility to control the preferential emission angle of a considerable fraction of the fastest electrons by varying the relative phase of the two-color field. Trajectory based semi-classical simulations show that for the investigated nanoparticle size range the directional steering can be attributed to the two-color effect on the electron trajectories, while the accompanied modification of the spatial distribution of the ionization rate on the nanoparticle surface has only a minor effect.View less
Natural landscape elements (NLEs) in agricultural landscapes contribute to biodiversity and ecosystem services, but are also regarded as an obstacle for large‐scale agricultural production. However, the effects of NLEs on crop yield have rarely been measured. Here, we investigated how different bordering structures, such as agricultural roads, field‐to‐field borders, forests, hedgerows, and kettle holes, influence agricultural yields. We hypothesized that (a) yield values at field borders differ from mid‐field yields and that (b) the extent of this change in yields depends on the bordering structure. We measured winter wheat yields along transects with log‐scaled distances from the border into the agricultural field within two intensively managed agricultural landscapes in Germany (2014 near Göttingen, and 2015–2017 in the Uckermark). We observed a yield loss adjacent to every investigated bordering structure of 11%–38% in comparison with mid‐field yields. However, depending on the bordering structure, this yield loss disappeared at different distances. While the proximity of kettle holes did not affect yields more than neighboring agricultural fields, woody landscape elements had strong effects on winter wheat yields. Notably, 95% of mid‐field yields could already be reached at a distance of 11.3 m from a kettle hole and at a distance of 17.8 m from hedgerows as well as forest borders. Our findings suggest that yield losses are especially relevant directly adjacent to woody landscape elements, but not adjacent to in‐field water bodies. This highlights the potential to simultaneously counteract yield losses close to the field border and enhance biodiversity by combining different NLEs in agricultural landscapes such as creating strips of extensive grassland vegetation between woody landscape elements and agricultural fields. In conclusion, our results can be used to quantify ecocompensations to find optimal solutions for the delivery of productive and regulative ecosystem services in heterogeneous agricultural landscapes.View less
Purpose To propose and validate an efficient method, based on a biophysically motivated signal model, for removing the orientation‐dependent part of R*2 using a single gradient‐recalled echo (GRE) measurement.
Methods The proposed method utilized a temporal second‐order approximation of the hollow‐cylinder‐fiber model, in which the parameter describing the linear signal decay corresponded to the orientation‐independent part of R*2. The estimated parameters were compared to the classical, mono‐exponential decay model for R*2 in a sample of an ex vivo human optic chiasm (OC). The OC was measured at 16 distinct orientations relative to the external magnetic field using GRE at 7T. To show that the proposed signal model can remove the orientation dependence of R*2, it was compared to the established phenomenological method for separating R*2 into orientation‐dependent and ‐independent parts.
Results Using the phenomenological method on the classical signal model, the well‐known separation of R*2 into orientation‐dependent and ‐independent parts was verified. For the proposed model, no significant orientation dependence in the linear signal decay parameter was observed.
Conclusions Since the proposed second‐order model features orientation‐dependent and ‐independent components at distinct temporal orders, it can be used to remove the orientation dependence of R*2 using only a single GRE measurement.View less
There are substantial individual differences in parasite composition and infection load in wildlife populations. Few studies have investigated the factors shaping this heterogeneity in large wild mammals or the impact of parasite infections on Darwinian fitness, particularly in juveniles. A host's parasite composition and infection load can be shaped by factors that determine contact with infective parasite stages and those that determine the host's resistance to infection, such as abiotic and social environmental factors, and age. Host–parasite interactions and synergies between coinfecting parasites may also be important. We test predictions derived from these different processes to investigate factors shaping infection loads (fecal egg/oocyte load) of two energetically costly gastrointestinal parasites: the hookworm Ancylostoma and the intracellular Cystoisospora, in juvenile spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in the Serengeti National Park, in Tanzania. We also assess whether parasite infections curtail survival to adulthood and longevity. Ancylostoma and Cystoisospora infection loads declined as the number of adult clan members increased, a result consistent with an encounter‐reduction effect whereby adults reduced encounters between juveniles and infective larvae, but were not affected by the number of juveniles in a clan. Infection loads decreased with age, possibly because active immune responses to infection improved with age. Differences in parasite load between clans possibly indicate variation in abiotic environmental factors between clan den sites. The survival of juveniles (<365 days old) to adulthood decreased with Ancylostoma load, increased with age, and was modulated by maternal social status. High‐ranking individuals with low Ancylostoma loads had a higher survivorship during the first 4 years of life than high‐ranking individuals with high Ancylostoma loads. These findings suggest that high infection loads with energetically costly parasites such as hookworms during early life can have negative fitness consequences.View less
The energy barrier leading to magnetic bistability in molecular clusters is determined by the magnetic anisotropy of the cluster constituents. By incorporating a highly anisotropic four‐coordinate cobalt(II) building block into a strongly coupled fully air‐ and moisture‐stable three‐spin system, it proved possible to suppress under‐barrier Raman processes leading to 350‐fold increase of magnetization relaxation time and pronounced hysteresis. Relaxation times of up to 9 hours at low temperatures were found.View less
Bioengineered spider silk is a biomaterial that has exquisite mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Iron oxide nanoparticles can be applied for the detection and analysis of biomolecules, target drug delivery, as MRI contrast agents and as therapeutic agents for hyperthermia-based cancer treatments. In this study, we investigated three bioengineered silks, MS1, MS2 and EMS2, and their potential to form a composite material with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). The presence of IONPs did not impede the self-assembly properties of MS1, MS2, and EMS2 silks, and spheres formed. The EMS2 spheres had the highest content of IONPs, and the presence of magnetite IONPs in these carriers was confirmed by several methods such as SEM, EDXS, SQUID, MIP-OES and zeta potential measurement. The interaction of EMS2 and IONPs did not modify the superparamagnetic properties of the IONPs, but it influenced the secondary structure of the spheres. The composite particles exhibited a more than two-fold higher loading efficiency for doxorubicin than the plain EMS2 spheres. For both the EMS2 and EMS2/IONP spheres, the drug revealed a pH-dependent release profile with advantageous kinetics for carriers made of the composite material. The composite spheres can be potentially applied for a combined cancer treatment via hyperthermia and drug delivery.View less
Ceruloplasmin (Cp) plays an important role in copper transport and iron metabolism, as well as Cp is also an indicator for the health status of dairy cows. The present study reports the validation of an automated assay to assess the plasma Cp in dairy cows. Plasma Cp levels were determined in 40 Holstein cows and intra- and inter-assay precision, accuracy, detection limit, and clinical validation of the assay were determined. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were < 2% and < 7%, respectively. The results were linear when serial sample dilutions were tested (r = 0.999, P < 0.001). The detection limit was lower than what could be measured in plasma from healthy cows. Increased plasma Cp levels were found in cows with inflammatory diseases. The method validated in this study is precise, simple, and fast and can be easily adapted to biochemical automated analysers. Furthermore, the promising results obtained with this protein will contribute to a wider use of Cp determination in bovine practice.View less