Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the psychopathological consequences of sexual and/or physical abuse. The economic burden is assumed to be high, whereas health-related quality of life and education is negatively affected. This study aims to determine health care costs, health-related quality of life, and educational interruption in adolescents and young adults with PTSD after sexual and/or physical abuse in Germany. Methods This analysis used data of 87 participants aged 14-21 years of a randomized controlled trial. Health care utilization, health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5L), sick leave days, productivity, and delay or failure to achieve educational aims were assessed. Health care costs from a payer perspective were calculated using unit costs for the year 2014. Results Mean health care costs for a six-month period were 5,243euro (SE 868euro). In particular, costs of inpatient stays in psychiatric hospitals, general hospitals and rehabilitation as well as child welfare institutions were high. In addition, health-related quality of life was lower due to anxiety/depression, resulting in a mean EQ-5D index and EQ-VAS score of 0.70 and 61.0, respectively. Furthermore, participants reported on average 27 sick leave days, a productivity loss of 61%, and a delay in education attainment as well as having been unable to achieve educational aims. Conclusion PTSD in adolescents and young adults is associated with a high economic burden. Health-related quality of life was substantially reduced. Furthermore, delay and productivity losses in education were observed.