Background: To evaluate the clinical utility of combined T2-weighted imaging and T2-mapping for the detection of prostate cancer.
Methods: Forty patients underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and T2-mapping of the prostate. Three readers each reviewed two sets of images: T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) sequence (standard T2), and standard T2 in combination with T2-mapping. Each reader assigned probability scores for malignancy to each zone [peripheral zone (PZ) or transition zone (TZ)]. Inter-observer variability for standard T2 and combined standard T2 with T2-mapping were assessed. Diagnostic accuracy was compared between standard T2 and combined standard T2 with T2-mapping.
Results: There was fair agreement between all three readers for standard T2 [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) =0.56] and combined standard T2 with T2-mapping (ICC =0.58). There was no significant difference in the area under the receiver operator characteristics curve for standard T2 compared to combined standard T2 with T2-mapping (0.89 vs. 0.82, P=0.31). Sensitivity (Sn) for combined standard T2 with T2-mapping was significantly higher compared to standard T2 alone (73.0% vs. 49.2%, P=0.006). Specificity (Sp) for combined standard T2 with T2-mapping was borderline significantly lower compared to standard T2 alone (89.3% vs. 94.9%, P=0.05). There was no significant differences between the negative predictive values (NPVs) and positive predictive values (PPVs) (P=0.07, P=0.45).
Conclusions: Combination of T2-weighted imaging and T2-mapping could potentially increase Sn for prostate malignancy compared to T2-weighted imaging alone.