A collection of letter metadata extracted from a collection of poems gathered and published by the Libyan Studies Center in Tripoli, Libya.
Current flow in electronic devices can be asymmetric with bias direction, a phenomenon underlying the utility of diodes and known as non-reciprocal charge transport. The promise of dissipationless electronics has recently stimulated the quest for superconducting diodes, and non-reciprocal superconducting devices have been realized in various non-centrosymmetric systems. Here, we probe the ultimate limits of miniaturization by creating atomic-scale Pb--Pb Josephson junctions in a scanning tunneling microscope. Pristine junctions stabilized by a single Pb atom exhibit hysteretic behavior, confirming the high quality of the junctions, but no asymmetry between the bias directions. Non-reciprocal supercurrents emerge when inserting a single magnetic atom into the junction, with the preferred direction depending on the atomic species. Aided by theoretical modelling, we trace the non-reciprocity to quasiparticle currents flowing via electron-hole asymmetric Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) states inside the superconducting energy gap and identify a new mechanism for diode behavior in Josephson junctions. Our results open new avenues for creating atomic-scale Josephson diodes and tuning their properties through single-atom manipulation.View less
The wage elasticity to corporate income tax (CIT) is an essential parameter for assessing tax policy reforms. This paper applies meta-regression analysis to quantitatively review the growing empirical tax incidence literature that indicates a substantial shift of the tax burden onto employees. While most studies report a large wage-reducing effect of the CIT, our findings suggest that estimates with positive values are published less often than they should. After accounting for the bias, our average estimate of the semi-elasticity suggests that the tax incidence effect on wages is economically small: a one percentage point increase in the corporate tax rate is associated with a decline in wages of only 0.054% to 0.078%. Moreover, we find that the CIT variable, econometric method, data, and underlying theoretical mechanism of studies drive the heterogeneity among estimates.View less
Im Rahmen der #MeToo-Studie wird der deutschsprachige Diskurs auf Twitter langfristig mittels einer Dynamischen Netzwerkanalyse untersucht. Der Untersuchungszeitraum geht über vier Jahre von Beginn des #MeToo Diskurses im Oktober 2017 bis Ende 2021. Dieses Repositorium enthält die Videoansicht der monatlichen Entwicklung. Damit wird auch einer methodischen Kritik an der Netzwerkforschung begegnet, in der häufig Social-Media-Daten über einen längeren Zeitraum aggregiert werden. So können keine dynamischen Entwicklungen sichtbar gemacht werden und der eigentlich prozessuale Charakter der Netzkommunikation verschwindet in der Analyse.View less
Source code for data processing and analysis
HPLC-MS/MS raw data
The dataset contains urban weather data recorded at the hydro-meteorological monitoring station of the Institute of Geographical Sciences at Freie Universitaet Berlin (working group Applied Physical Geography). The station is located at 52°25'37" N, 13°21'29" E (WGS84) in an altitude of 45 m a.s.l. It consists of a 7.5 x 7.5 m wide fenced measuring field covered by short grass which is cut frequently (spring to fall) to ensure reference evaporation conditions. The field is equipped with a range of redundant devices that record weather information. In this summary we focus on a description of the devices from which data were included in the published dataset. A full list of all devices is available at https://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/en/geog/fachrichtungen/angeog/Messfeld-auf-dem-Campus/index.html. The dataset contains rainfall, air temperature, humidity, air pressure, solar radiation as well as wind speed and direction, each measured in intervals of 15 min. The time series starts in January 2017 and is updated annually. Rainfall is collected with a Davis VantagePro tipping bucket which is part of the ISS (Integrated Sensor Suite, DAV-6323EU, manufactured before 2007) and mounted 2 m above ground. The collector diameter is 16.3 cm resulting in a collecting area of 210 cm². The measuring resolution of the tipping bucket is 0.25 mm (0.01 inch). During winter the DAVIS rain gauge is heated using the DAV-7720EU heating system. The begin of the heating period in each year is determined by the air temperature and starts before the daily minimum drops below 0°C. In addition a stainless steel Hellmann gauge with standard diameter of 16 cm (area: 200 m²) is installed on the monitoring field 1 m above ground. Rain water is collected in a steel can, which is emptied manually every morning from Monday to Friday using a DIN58667 measuring glass. Between December and February accumulated snow and ice is thawed. Paired data from the Hellman and DAVIS collector to assess accuracy are not included in the data set but published separately (Reinhardt-Imjela et al. 2018). Temperature (°C), Wind speed and wind direction are measured 2 m above ground with the Vaisale WXT520 weather transmitter, humidity (%) and air pressure (hPa) also 2 m above ground with the DAVIS ISS. For solar radiation (W/m²) a Kipp & Zonen CMP3 Pyranometer is mounted also 2 m above ground.
The data are provided as a tab-separated TXT file with column names in the first line. The first column contains the date and time (date format: DD/MM/YYYY hh:mm). In the following columns all measured parameters are listed (units are included in the column name). Measuring errors or missing values are marked with “N/A”. Empty fields for the wind direction indicate intervals without measurable wind speed.View less
Collection of spectral meta data derived from spectral data recorded by the Comsic Dust Analyzer (CDA) onboard the Cassini-Huygens spaceprobe in Saturn's large, tenuous E-ring. The respective spectral data have been kindly provided by LASP Colorado (USA) and ISS Stuttgart (Germany) and orginate from the years 2005-2008 and 2015 respectively.
Following an infection, hosts cannot always clear the pathogen, instead either dying or surviving with a persistent infection. Such variation is ecologically and evolutionarily important because it can affect infection prevalence and transmission, and virulence evolution. However, the factors causing variation in infection outcomes, and the relationship between clearance and virulence are not well understood. Here we show that sustained persistent infection and clearance are both possible outcomes across bacterial species showing a range of virulence in Drosophila melanogaster. Variation in virulence arises because of differences in the two components of virulence: bacterial infection intensity inside the host (exploitation), and the amount of damage caused per bacterium (per parasite pathogenicity). As early-phase exploitation increased, clearance rates later in the infection decreased, whereas there was no apparent effect of per parasite pathogenicity on clearance rates. Variation in infection outcomes is thereby determined by how virulence – and its components – relate to the rate of pathogen clearance. Taken together we demonstrate that the virulence decomposition framework is broadly applicable and can provide valuable insights into host-pathogen interactions.View less
Euphemistic construals are common in Chinese and underrepresented in the linguistic research. In the accessible form of an annotated database for non-Chinese speakers an attempt was made to bring the results of the doctoral research project “Conceptualisations of Death, Illness, and the Body in Chinese Euphemisms: A Survey of Sensitive Vocabulary in Modern Chinese Lexicography” into the general discussion on euphemisms in Western (predominantly anglophone) linguistics and link the so-called “tactful expressions” weiwanyu 委婉语 to a broader context of cultural and linguistic typology. Apart from the databank encompassing 1562 euphemistic entries, the dataset also includes a detailed description of entry representation as well as the methods of data retrieval and organisation.View less
Der Datensatz beinhaltet eine referenzierte Liste der in der Diachronie der ägyptischen Sprache (Altägyptisch, Mittelägyptisch, Demotisch, Égyptien de Tradition) belegten und in Standardgrammatiken des Ägyptischen diskutierten Verbalformen.
Despite the growing literature on tax incentives for research and development (R&D), little is known about how the design aspects of the fiscal policies shape the effectiveness. This paper applies meta-regression techniques to assess the effect of various design attributes on innovation inputs. Using 496 estimates from 37 studies exploiting direct approaches, the results indicate that the base definition of tax incentives substantially drive the heterogeneity found in the literature. MetaForest, a novel machine learning algorithm, confirms these results. Furthermore, I find significant publication bias in favor of reporting positive effects of fiscal incentives, which is more prevalent among studies published in peer-reviewed journals.View less
The transboundary region of the Iishana system in the western Cuvelai Basin, between southern Angola and northern Namibia, is frequently affected by floods at irregular intervals. As a result, the predominantly rural, subsistence farming population experienced crop failures, human and economic losses. To date, very little is known about the generation of floods, flood concentration, and stormwater drainage dynamics in this region. Therefore, in order to intensively study the runoff behavior and interconnectivity of the Iishana system, 2D-hydrodynamic modeling was used to reconstruct one of the latest major flood events during the rainy season from November 2008 to March 2009. The model focused on the eastern part of the Iishana system, which was most affected by floods and flood damage due to the high population density in and around Oshakati, the regional capital. Two main streams were identified noteworthy because they merge and subsequently affect Oshakati. Water depths vary from 0.1 m to 14 m, with an average of 0.2 m, while water depths above 5 m were attributed to borrow pits. The inundation area ranged up to 1,860 km² and the amount of water left after the rainy season was determined between 0.116 km³ and 0.547 km³, depending on the amount of evapotranspiration (ET) considered in the model. Thus, in the Angolan part of the Iishana system, significantly larger quantities of water are available for longer periods of time during the subsequent dry season, whereas the system in Namibia stores less water, resulting in a shorter water retention period.View less
Ziel der Berliner Datenbank frühneuzeitlicher Fremdsprachenlehrwerke (BDaFL) ist ein Überblick über die in der Frühen Neuzeit in Europa erschienenen Fremdsprachenlehrwerke. Die Zusammenstellung der Datenbank erfolgte kriteriengeleitet: Aufgenommen wurden nur mehrsprachige Sprachlehrwerke, die Deutsch als eine der behandelten Sprachen beinhalten und als einen ihrer Bestandteile Musterdialoge aufweisen. Verzeichnet sind alle uns aus der Fachliteratur und eigener Katalogrecherche bekannten Werke des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts sowie einige Werke des 15. und frühen 18. Jahrhunderts. Die Datenbank umfasst einen großen Teil der erschienenen Fremdsprachenlehrwerke, erhebt jedoch keinen Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit.View less
Within the framework of the research project "The Content of Roman, Late Antique/Early Medieval Amphorae as Proxy of Economic Change and the Emergence of New Socio-Economic Networks" (see https://www.geschkult.fu-berlin.de/e/klassarch/forschung/projekte/late-antique---early-medieval-amphorae/index.html) a sample of Aqaba Amphora (Raith et al. 2013) from a wreck located at Ras el Sheikh Humaid and preserved in the National Museum of Riad (see Reinfeld – Held 2020) has been analysed at the Laboratory for Classical and Supramolecular Mass Spectrometry, BioSupraMol, Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Pharmacy of the Freie Univ. Berlin using GC-MS techniques in order to identify organic residues entrapped in the ceramic and shed new light on its content.
M. Reinfeld – W. Held, From Try Dive to a Wreck Documentation. Archaeological Research and Capacity Building in Saudi Arabia, in: J. A. Rodrigues – A. Traviglia (Hrsg.), IKUWA 3. Shared Heritage: Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress for Underwater Archaeology (Oxford 2020), 163-171
M. M. Raith – R. Hoffbauer – H. Euler – P. A. Yule – K. Damgaard, The View from Ẓafār – An Archaeometric Study of the ʻAqaba Pottery Complex and its Distribution in the 1st Millenium CE, Zeitschrift für Orient-Archäologie 6, 2013, 320-350.View less
Radiocarbon dating of two bone samples from the archaeological excavation of the farm at Ain Wassel (High Tunisian Tell). The analysed material comes from the archaeological excavation at Ain Wassel carried out by the University of Trento (Italy) and the Institut National du Patrimoine of Tunisia, under the joint direction of Mustapha Khanoussi and Mariette de Vos Raaijmakers (1994- 1996). See: http://rusafricum.org/en/thuggasurvey/home/
The samples, a pork (KIA-55574) and a chicken (KIA-55575) bone, come from a fill layer including very mixed heretogeneous material dating to the Byzantine period and adhered to the wall of a ceramic vessel (closed form in common ware).
The analysis have been carried out by the The Leibniz Laboratory for Radiometric Dating and Stable Isotope Research (AMS 14C Lab).
For methodology and references, see:
Reimer, P., Austin, W., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Blackwell, P., Bronk Ramsey, C., . . . Talamo, S. (2020). The IntCal20 Northern Hemisphere Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curve (0–55 cal kBP). Radiocarbon, 62(4), 725-757. doi:10.1017/RDC.2020.41
Ramsey, C., & Lee, S. (2013). Recent and Planned Developments of the Program OxCal. Radiocarbon, 55(2), 720-730. doi:10.1017/S0033822200057878
Longin R. New method of collagen extraction for radiocarbon dating. Nature. 1971 Mar 26;230(5291):241-2. doi: 10.1038/230241a0
Stuiver, M., & Polach, H. (1977). Discussion Reporting of 14C Data. Radiocarbon, 19(3), 355-363. doi:10.1017/S0033822200003672View less
Magnetic adatom chains on surfaces constitute fascinating quantum spin systems. Superconducting substrates suppress interactions with bulk electronic excitations but couple the adatom spins to a chain of subgap Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) quasiparticles. Using a scanning tunneling microscope, we investigate such correlated spin-fermion systems by constructing Fe chains adatom by adatom on superconducting NbSe2. The adatoms couple entirely via the substrate, retaining their quantum spin nature. In dimers, we observe that the deepest YSR state undergoes a quantum phase transition due to Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions, a distinct signature of quantum spins. Chains exhibit coherent hybridization and band formation of the YSR excitations, indicating ferromagnetic coupling. Longer chains develop separate domains due to coexisting charge-density-wave order of NbSe2. Despite the spin-orbit-coupled substrate, we find no signatures of Majoranas, possibly because quantum spins reduce the parameter range for topological superconductivity. We suggest that adatom chains are versatile systems for investigating correlated-electron physics and its interplay with topological superconductivity.View less
Immune priming describes the phenomenon whereby after a primary pathogen exposure, a host more effectively fights a lethal secondary exposure (challenge) to the same pathogen. Conflicting evidence exists for immune priming in invertebrates, potentially due to heterogeneity across studies in the pathogen species tested, the antigen preparation for the primary exposure, and the phenotypic trait used to test for priming. To explore these factors, we injected Drosophila melanogaster with one of two bacterial species, Lactococcus lactis or Providencia burhodogranariea, which had either been heat-killed or inactivated with formaldehyde, or we injected a 1:1 mixture of the two inactivation methods. Survival and resistance (the inverse of bacterial load) were assessed after a live bacterial challenge. In contrast to our predictions, none of the primary exposure treatments provided a survival benefit after challenge compared to the controls. Resistance in the acute phase, i.e., 1 day post-challenge, separated into a lower- and higher-load group, however, neither group varied according to the primary exposure. In the chronic phase, i.e., 7 days post-challenge, resistance did not separate into two groups, and it was also unaffected by the primary exposure. Our multi-angled study supports the view that immune priming may require specific circumstances to occur, rather than it being a ubiquitous aspect of insect immunity.View less
Data sets for Direct Bayesian model reduction of smaller scale convective activity conditioned on large scale dynamics