Das zentrale Motiv der Reise macht Fatih Akıns Verfilmung von Wolfgang Herrndorfs Roman "Tschick" zum „Roadmovie“. Im Rahmen der Arbeit wird dieses Filmgenre genauer spezifiziert. Die Bewegung der Protagonisten initiiert einen Entwicklungsprozess, der die jugendlichen Figuren reifen lässt. "Tschick" hat somit in zweifacher Hinsicht Potenzial für den Deutschunterricht an der Schule: Die Schüler*innen erkennen sich selbst in den aufgegriffenen Themen wieder und werden durch ein Leitmedium angesprochen, das ihrer Alltagsrealität entspricht. Da sich in die abstrakten Begriffe „Genre“ und „Roadmovie“ verschiedene Diskurse einschreiben, wird zunächst mithilfe der Genretheorie herausgearbeitet, welches Genre-Verständnis dieser Arbeit vorliegt. Die theoretischen Ergebnisse dienen anschließend als Parameter, um den konkreten Filmgegenstand "Tschick" hinsichtlich seiner Roadmovie-Konventionen zu analysieren. Zuletzt wird aufgezeigt, welche didaktische Perspektive Roadmovies für den Deutschunterricht eröffnen. Wie können Roadmovies die Protagonist*innen und Schüler*innen bewegen? Die Rezeption von "Tschick" regt die Schüler*innen vor dem soziokulturellen Hintergrund der beiden Protagonisten dazu an, kulturelle, sprachliche und soziale Differenz wahrzunehmen, eigene Sichtweisen zu reflektieren und so ihre interkulturelle Kompetenz zu erweitern.View less
Place branding is seriously studied in various academic disciplines. Its impact on strategic development plays a vital role in processes of sustainable urban transformation. Place branding originated in tourism management and over time its research focus spilled over and evolved in environmental science, urban studies and public administration. Scholars and policy makers are currently faced with a myriad of concepts in place branding research, which show considerable overlap but should be carefully distinguished from each other. To increase our understanding of this body of research, this article observes a strong pattern of the concepts in use, in their references to location types (i.e., urban, city, destination, place) and broadcasting activities (branding, marketing, promotion). It builds on this observation by collecting studies from the Scopus database by location type and broadcasting activities (LT–BA) reference pairs and systematically analysing and reviewing these from 1980 to 2018. A total of 2665 articles and reviews were identified and analysed based on (1) occurrences per reference pair, (2) co-occurrences per reference pair, and (3) co-occurrences for each reference pair with other concepts. On that basis, the origin and evolution of the research field including multiple reference pairs in use is explored and described.View less
With growing populations and climate change, assuring food and nutrition security is an increasingly challenging task. Climate smart and sustainable agriculture, that is, conceiving agriculture to be resistant and resilient to a changing climate while keeping it viable in the long term, is probably the best solution. The role of soil biota and particularly arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in this new agriculture is believed to be of paramount importance. However, the large nutrient pools and the microbiota of subsoils are rarely considered in the equation. Here we explore the potential contributions of subsoil AM fungi to this agriculture and suggest future research goals that would allow us to maximize their benefits.View less
Introduction: The aim of this study is to describe the initial stages of the iterative and user-centered mobile mental health adaptation process of Step-by-Step (SbS), a modularized and originally web-based e-mental health intervention developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Given the great need for improving the responsiveness and accessibility of health systems in host countries, the EU-funded STRENGTHS consortium studies the adaptation, implementation and scaling-up of SbS for Syrian refugees in Germany, Sweden and Egypt. Using early prototyping, usability testing and identification of barriers to implementation, the study demonstrates a user-centered process of contextual adaptation to the needs and expectations of Syrian refugees.
Materials and Methods: N = 128 adult Syrian refugees residing in Germany, Sweden and Egypt took part in qualitative assessments. Access, usage, and potential barriers regarding information and communication technologies (ICTs) were assessed in free list interviews. Interactive prototypes of the app were presented in key informant interviews and evaluated on usability, user experience and dissemination strategies. Focus groups were conducted to verify the results. The interview protocols were analyzed using inductive and deductive thematic analysis.
Results: The use of digital technologies was found to be widespread among Syrian refugees. Technical literacy and problems with accessing the internet were common barriers. The majority of the respondents reacted positively to the presented app prototypes, stressing the potential health impact of the intervention (n = 28; 78%), its flexibility and customizability (n = 19; 53%) as well as the easy learnability of the app (n = 12; 33%). Aesthetic components (n = 12; 33%) and the overall length and pace of the intervention sessions (n = 9; 25%) were criticized in regard to their negative impact on user motivation. Acceptability, credibility, and technical requirements were identified as main barriers to implementation.
Discussion: The study provided valuable guidance for adapting the app version of SbS and for mobile mental health adaptation in general. The findings underline the value of contextual adaptation with a focus on usability, user experience, and context specific dissemination strategies. Related factors such as access, acceptability and adherence have major implications for scaling-up digital interventions.View less
From a political and economic perspective, senior entrepreneurship seems to be the response to demographic consequences of the ageing workforce in Europe. Several policies and strategies by the EU and the OECD promote senior entrepreneurship by creating favorable environment and frameworks. This article examines the role of senior entrepreneurship as social innovation understood as response to unmet needs of population ageing in the area of economic activity. In this paper, we draw on qualitative interviews with 6 experts and 4 senior entrepreneurs (as part of larger research project) in Poland in addition to the analysis of reports and evaluations of incubator projects. Findings highlight the importance of other factors than financial sustainability of senior entrepreneurship: (1) social connectedness as means against social isolation, (2) personal self-confidence leading to social and psychological empowerment of the entrepreneurs, (3) skills, knowledge, and experience also strengthening their human capital in the job market. Economic sustainability of the businesses established is not the primary goal in these undertakings. The article suggests due to the three factors before mentioned that the notion of social innovation in senior entrepreneurship might best be understood as improving the well-being and quality of life of the entrepreneurs themselves. Senior entrepreneurship can be an adequate response to the challenges of the ageing population. However, due to the low rates of unemployment, the idea of becoming a senior entrepreneur appears little tempting.View less
We experimentally investigate the impact of pulse shape on the dynamics of laser-generated plasma in rare gases. Fast-rising triangular pulses with a slower decay lead to early ionization of the gas and depose energy more efficiently than their temporally reversed counterparts. As a result, in both argon and krypton, the induced shockwave as well as the plasma luminescence are stronger. This is due to an earlier availability of free electrons to undergo inverse Bremsstrahlung on the pulse trailing edge. Our results illustrate the ability of adequately tailored pulse shapes to optimize the energy deposition in gas plasmas.View less
There has been a recent surge of interest in using machine learning across chemical space in order to predict properties of molecules or design molecules and materials with the desired properties. Most of this work relies on defining clever feature representations, in which the chemical graph structure is encoded in a uniform way such that predictions across chemical space can be made. In this work, we propose to exploit the powerful ability of deep neural networks to learn a feature representation from low-level encodings of a huge corpus of chemical structures. Our model borrows ideas from neural machine translation: it translates between two semantically equivalent but syntactically different representations of molecular structures, compressing the meaningful information both representations have in common in a low-dimensional representation vector. Once the model is trained, this representation can be extracted for any new molecule and utilized as a descriptor. In fair benchmarks with respect to various human-engineered molecular fingerprints and graph-convolution models, our method shows competitive performance in modelling quantitative structure–activity relationships in all analysed datasets. Additionally, we show that our descriptor significantly outperforms all baseline molecular fingerprints in two ligand-based virtual screening tasks. Overall, our descriptors show the most consistent performances in all experiments. The continuity of the descriptor space and the existence of the decoder that permits deducing a chemical structure from an embedding vector allow for exploration of the space and open up new opportunities for compound optimization and idea generation.View less
The authors universal (meta-)logical reasoning approach is demonstrated and assessed with a prominent riddle in epistemic reasoning: the Wise Men Puzzle. The presented solution puts a particular emphasis on the adequate modeling of common knowledge and it illustrates the elegance and the practical relevance of the shallow semantical embedding approach when utilized within modern proof assistant systems such as Isabelle/HOL. The contributed dataset provides supporting evidence for claims made in the article “Universal (meta-)logical reasoning: Recent successes” (Benzmüller, 2019).View less
In-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the oxygen K-edge was used to investigate the role of oxygen during the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in an electrodeposited Ni-Fe(OxHy) electrocatalyst in alkaline pH. We show the rise of a pre-peak feature at 529 eV in the O K-edge spectra, correlated to the appearance of a shoulder at the Ni L3-edge and formation of oxidized Ni3+/4+-O. Then, for the first time, we track the spectral changes in a dynamic fashion in both the soft and hard X-ray regimes during cyclic voltammetry (in situ CV-XAS) to obtain a fine-tuned resolution of the potential-related changes. The pre-peak feature at the O K-edge likely signifies formation of an electron deficient oxygen site. The electrophilic oxygen species appears and disappears reversibly in correlation with the Ni2+ ↔ Ni3+/4+ process, and persists during OER catalysis as long the metal is oxidized. Our study provides new insight into OER electrocatalysis: Before onset of the O-O bond formation step, the catalytic oxyhydroxide has accumulated electron deficiencies by both, oxidation of transition metal ions and formation of partially oxidized oxygen sites.View less
This paper is part of a project of studying benthic diatom biodiversity on marine coastal regions of Sweden with focus on rare and less known species. Two new species of Cocconeis Ehrenb. are described from Vrångö, a small island in the west coast of Sweden. Both species were found as epiphytic on the green alga Ulva intestinalis L. Cocconeis magnoareolata Al-Handal, Riaux-Gob., R.Jahn & A.K.Wulff sp. nov. is a small species not exceeding 9 µm in length and characterized by having large subquadrangular areolae on the sternum valve. Cocconeis vrangoensis Al-Handal & Riaux-Gob. sp. nov. appears similar to some taxa of the ‘Cocconeis scutellum complex’, but differs by its stria density on both valves and variable features of the areola and valvocopula ultrastructure. Detailed descriptions based on light and electron microscopy examination, a comparison with closely related taxa, as well as a description of the habitat of both species are here presented.View less
Research on somatosensory awareness has yielded highly diverse findings with putative neural correlates ranging from activity within somatosensory cortex to activation of widely distributed frontoparietal networks. Divergent results from previous studies may reside in cognitive processes that often coincide with stimulus awareness in experimental settings. To scrutinise the specific relevance of regions implied in the target detection network, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (n = 27) on a novel somatosensory detection task that explicitly controls for stimulus uncertainty, behavioural relevance, overt reports, and motor responses. Using Bayesian Model Selection, we show that responses reflecting target detection are restricted to secondary somatosensory cortex, whereas activity in insular, cingulate, and motor regions is best explained in terms of stimulus uncertainty and overt reports. Our results emphasise the role of sensory-specific cortex for the emergence of perceptual awareness and dissect the contribution of the frontoparietal network to classical detection tasks.View less
Prevalence rates for mental health problems are higher when an individual's socioeconomic status (SES) is low, but the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. We investigated associations between education as indicator for SES and depressive symptoms as well as positive mental health (PMH). Moreover, we hypothesized that low education is associated with a lack of psychosocial resources and more daily hassles, which in turn mediate the relationships between education and mental health. In a German representative sample (N = 7937), we cross-sectionally first examined whether a person's educational level was associated with depressive symptoms and PMH. Educational level was defined as the highest academic qualification achieved. Second, we investigated whether also sense of control, resilience, delay of gratification, cultural activity and daily hassles followed gradients along the educational level. Third, we investigated whether they mediated the relationship between education and mental health. Results showed that depressive symptoms measured by items from the DASS-42 depression subscale were more prevalent for persons with a low educational level, PMH operationalized by the Positive Mental Health Scale was equally distributed, and all psychosocial characteristics followed the gradient of educational level. In addition, the group with a high school diploma was particularly burdened. Structural equation modeling indicated that the associations between education and mental health were mediated by all psychosocial characteristics and daily hassles, apart from the delay of gratification. In the group with the lowest educational level the model fit indices for depressive symptoms and PMH were acceptable (χ2 = 10007.243 (627), CFI = 0.869, RMSEA = 0.04 (90% CI [0.04, 0.04], SRMR = 0.05; and χ2 = 12779.968 (741), CFI = 0.86, RMSEA = 0.05 (90% CI [0.05, 0.05], SRMR = 0.05), respectively). The effect size Pm refers to the proportion of the total effect that is mediated by one or more variables (“M”), and the effect size of all indirect effects in the model for depressive symptoms was Pm = .80 and for PMH it was Pm = .68. The results support our hypotheses that low education is associated with less psychosocial resources, which in turn serve together with daily hassles as pathways between education and depressive symptoms as well as PMH. Building on these findings, longitudinal studies are necessary to investigate causality.View less
Objectives and design This trial evaluated the effect of bandaging of acute painful ulcerative bovine digital dermatitis (DD) lesion (stage M2) in dairy cows, tested using two different topical treatments.
Design Randomised clinical trial.
Setting This study was conducted using Holstein-Friesian cows ranging in age from heifers to fourth lactation in a single dairy herd and diagnosed with acute ulcerative DD lesions (stage M2) on the first examination (week 0). Cows were randomly assigned into either a non-bandaged or bandaged group across two treatment conditions: topical chlortetracycline spray (CTC) and Intra Hoof-Fit Gel (IHF). Lesions received standardised bandaging and treatment on a weekly basis. Unhealed lesions could receive up to five repeated treatments, at weekly intervals, within a four-week period. Both M-stage and locomotion were also evaluated and scored weekly. Cows with healthily formed skin (stage M0) were deemed healed and subsequently released from the study.
Results In total, 163 M2 lesions were diagnosed at week 0. Bandaged M2 lesions had a significantly higher probability of cure than non-bandaged lesions regardless of treatment type (HR: 4.1; P<0.001; 95 per cent CI: 2.5 to 6.8). Most healing occurred within the first three weeks of trial. Furthermore, bandaged lesions (group 2 and group 4) were significantly less likely to progress into the chronic hyperkeratotic or proliferative stage (M4) than non-bandaged lesions in group 1 and group 3 (HR: 0.10; P<0.001; 95 per cent CI: 0.04 to 0.22). Out of concern for the cow’s wellbeing, this study investigated the effects of bandaging on locomotion. Bandaging had no effect on locomotion for either cows treated with CTC (group 1: median Sprecher score, 2; IQR=1–2; group 2: median Sprecher score, 2; IQR=1–3; P=0.3) or IHF (group 3: median Sprecher score, 2; IQR=1–2; group 4: median Sprecher score, 2; IQR=1–3; P=0.3).View less
Using stochastic simulations, we study the influence of spatial disorder on the diffusion of a single particle through a gel that consists of rigid, straight fibers. The interaction between the particle and the gel fibers consists of an invariant short-range repulsion, the steric part, and an interaction part that can be attractive or repulsive and of varying range. The effect that spatial disorder of the gel structure has on the particle diffusivity depends crucially on the presence of nonsteric interactions. For attractive interactions, disorder slows down diffusion, because in disordered gels, the particle becomes strongly trapped in regions of locally increased fiber density. For repulsive interactions, the diffusivity is minimal for intermediate disorder strength, because highly disordered lattices exhibit abundant passageways of locally low fiber density. The comparison with experimental data on protein and fluorophore diffusion through various hydrogels is favorable. Our findings shed light on particle-diffusion mechanisms in biogels and thus on biological barrier properties, which can be helpful for the optimal design of synthetic diffusors as well as synthetic mucus constructsView less
The sensitivity of the October 1996 Medicane in the western Mediterranean basin to sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is investigated with a regional climate model via ensemble sensitivity simulations. For 11 SST states, ranging from −4 K below to +6 K above the observed SST field (in 1 K steps), 24-member ensembles of the medicane are simulated. By using a modified phase space diagram and a simple compositing method, it is shown that the SST state has a minor influence on the tracks of the cyclones but a strong influence on their intensities. Increased SSTs lead to greater probabilities of tropical transitions, to stronger lower- and upper-level warm cores and to lower pressure minima. The tropical transition occurs sooner and lasts longer, which enables a greater number of transitioning cyclones to survive landfall over Sardinia and re-intensify in the Tyrrhenian Sea. The results demonstrate that SSTs influence the intensity of fluxes from the sea, which leads to greater convective activity before the storms reach their maturity. These results suggest that the processes at steady state for medicanes are very similar to tropical cyclones.View less
The archaeological site Qurayyah, situated in the NW of the Tabuk Province of Saudi Arabia, has been repeatedly described as one of the largest and most significant oases of Northwestern Arabia. Human occupation in the oasis started at least from the early Holocene and continued to the Nabatean, Roman and late Byzantine period. The hydrologically favored position results from its specific geomorphological location where the plateaus fade towards the east and the landscape opens towards the Tabuk Basin so that a balanced water supply was ensured. We present a geomorphological map (1:20,000; main map) based on the interpretation of a high-resolution satellite image and detailed control in the field. The map integrates archaeological, hydraulic and natural features in order to show how the people at Qurayyah structured their landscape and developed water management strategies in relation to prevailing geomorphological processes during the incipient phase (Bronze Age) of the oasis.View less
A stagnation flow reactor has been designed and characterized for both experimental and modeling studies of single-crystal model catalysts in heterogeneous catalysis. Using CO oxidation over a Pd(100) single crystal as a showcase, we have employed planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) to visualize the CO2 distribution over the catalyst under reaction conditions and subsequently used the 2D spatially resolved gas phase data to characterize the stagnation flow reactor. From a comparison of the experimental data and the stagnation flow model, it was found that characteristic stagnation flow can be achieved with the reactor. Furthermore, the combined stagnation flow/PLIF/modeling approach makes it possible to estimate the turnover frequency (TOF) of the catalytic surface from the measured CO2 concentration profiles above the surface and to predict the CO2, CO and O2 concentrations at the surface under reaction conditions.View less
Toy models are highly idealized and extremely simple models. Although they are omnipresent across scientific disciplines, toy models are a surprisingly under-appreciated subject in the philosophy of science. The main philosophical puzzle regarding toy models concerns what the epistemic goal of toy modelling is. One promising proposal for answering this question is the claim that the epistemic goal of toy models is to provide individual scientists with understanding. The aim of this article is to precisely articulate and to defend this claim. In particular, we will distinguish between autonomous and embedded toy models, and then argue that important examples of autonomous toy models are sometimes best interpreted to provide how-possibly understanding, while embedded toy models yield how-actually understanding, if certain conditions are satisfied.View less
One of the main challenges in the field of quantum simulation and computation is to identify ways to certify the correct functioning of a device when a classical efficient simulation is not available. Important cases are situations in which one cannot classically calculate local expectation values of state preparations efficiently. In this work, we develop weak-membership formulations of the certification of ground state preparations.Weprovide a non-interactive protocol for certifying ground states of frustration-free Hamiltonians based on simple energy measurements of local Hamiltonian terms. This certification protocol can be applied to classically intractable analog quantum simulations: For example, using Feynman-Kitaev Hamiltonians, one can encode universal quantum computation in such ground states. Moreover, our certification protocol is applicable to ground state encodings of IQP circuits aiming at the demonstration of quantum supremacy. These can be certified efficiently when the error is polynomially bounded.View less
The creation of the master program “Intellectual Encounters of the Islamicate World” (IEIW) at the Freie Universität Berlin (FUB) was a shared initiative of stakeholders for the internationalization of higher education and development in Germany to pilot an online degree. Growing awareness of the crucial role that access to higher education and advanced professional training play for economic development in the Middle East culminated in the launch of this project by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), with funding made available by the Federal Ministry for International Cooperation and Economic Development (BMZ). An online master program bringing Israeli and Palestinian students together in the study of their shared religious history was expected to foster capacities for intercultural dialogue in future professionals and to broaden access to advanced graduate degrees for marginalized groups.View less