Tachykinins (TKs) are a group of conserved neuropeptides. In insects, tachykinin-related peptides (TRPs) are important modulators of several functions such as nociception and lipid metabolism. Recently, it has become clear that TRPs also play a role in regulating the insect immune system. Here, we report a transcriptomic analysis of changes in the expression levels of immune-related genes in the storage pest Tenebrio molitor after treatment with Tenmo-TRP-7. We tested two concentrations (10–8 and 10–6 M) at two time points, 6 and 24 h post-injection. We found significant changes in the transcript levels of a wide spectrum of immune-related genes. Some changes were observed 6 h after the injection of Tenmo-TRP-7, especially in relation to its putative anti-apoptotic action. Interestingly, 24 h after the injection of 10–8 M Tenmo-TRP-7, most changes were related to the regulation of the cellular response. Applying 10–6 M Tenmo-TRP-7 resulted in the downregulation of genes associated with humoral responses. Injecting Tenmo-TRP-7 did not affect beetle survival but led to a reduction in haemolymph lysozyme-like antibacterial activity, consistent with the transcriptomic data. The results confirmed the immunomodulatory role of TRP and shed new light on the functional homology between TRPs and TKs.