An updated subtribal classification of the Compositae–Anthemideae is presented based on gene- and species-tree reconstructions considering sequence variation from the plastid (cpDNA ndhF, trnL-trnF) and nuclear genome (nrDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, ETS; nDNA dual specificity phosphatase DSP, plus-3 domain-containing protein of the vernalization independence 5 complex VIP5, major facilitator superfamily protein of the Nitrate Transporter1/Peptide Transporter NPF3.1) for 113 of the 115 hitherto accepted genera of the tribe. As a result, six subtribes are newly circumscribed, i.e. Anthemidinae (including also Xylanthemum), Artemisiinae (including also Hulteniella, Lepidolopha, Opisthopappus and Tridactylina), Glebionidinae (including also Otoglyphis, Endopappus and Nivellea), Handeliinae (including Cancrinia, Polychrysum and excluding Xylanthemum), Leucantheminae (including also Daveaua, Heteromera and Otospermum) and Leucanthemopsidinae (including Phalacrocarpum). Additionally, five unigeneric subtribes (i.e. Brocchiinae, Inulantherinae, Lepidophorinae, Lonadinae and Vogtiinae) are described as new to science due to their phylogenetically isolated positions, resulting in 19 subtribes accepted for Compositae–Anthemideae. Three new combinations are proposed to accommodate the former Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. & Eig and A. pubescens subsp. maroccana (Ball) Fennane & Ibn Tattou in the genus Otoglyphis Pomel (1874), which was found to have priority over Aaronsohnia Warb. & Eig (1927), and to accommodate the former Tanacetum paleaceum Podlech in the genus Xylanthemum Tzvelev.