Scope: Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is rich in phenolic compounds, including hydroxytyrosol (HTy) and hydroxytyrosyl acetate (HTy-Ac), which have presented multiple beneficial properties. Their impact on inflammatory responses in human keratinocytes and modes of action have not been addressed yet. Methods and results: Primary human keratinocytes are pretreated with HTy-Ac or HTy for 30 min and stimulated with IL-1β or Toll-like receptor 3 ligand (TLR3-l). Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), measured by ELISA, is attenuated by both polyphenols in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of several inflammation-related genes, including distinct TSLP isoforms and IL-8, are assessed by quantitative RT-PCR and likewise inhibited by HTy-Ac/HTy. Mechanistically, EVOO phenols counteracts I κB degradation and translocation of NF-κB to the nucleus, a transcription factor of essential significance to TSLP and IL-8 transcriptional activity; this is evidenced by immunoblotting. Accordingly, NF-κB recruitment to critical binding sites in the TSLP and IL-8 promoter is impeded in the presence of HTy-Ac/HTy, as demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Promoter reporter assays finally reveal that the neutralizing effect on NF-κB induction has functional consequences, resulting in reduced NF-κB-directed transcription. Conclusion EVOO phenols afford protection from inflammation in human keratinocytes by interference with the NF-κB pathway.