Electrochemical water splitting has attracted significant attention as a key pathway for the development of renewable energy systems. Fabricating efficient electrocatalysts for these processes is intensely desired to reduce their overpotentials and facilitate practical applications. Recently, metal-organic framework (MOF) nanoarchitectures featuring ultrahigh surface areas, tunable nanostructures, and excellent porosities have emerged as promising materials for the development of highly active catalysts for electrochemical water splitting. Herein, the most pivotal advances in recent research on engineering MOF nanoarchitectures for efficient electrochemical water splitting are presented. First, the design of catalytic centers for MOF-based/derived electrocatalysts is summarized and compared from the aspects of chemical composition optimization and structural functionalization at the atomic and molecular levels. Subsequently, the fast-growing breakthroughs in catalytic activities, identification of highly active sites, and fundamental mechanisms are thoroughly discussed. Finally, a comprehensive commentary on the current primary challenges and future perspectives in water splitting and its commercialization for hydrogen production is provided. Hereby, new insights into the synthetic principles and electrocatalysis for designing MOF nanoarchitectures for the practical utilization of water splitting are offered, thus further promoting their future prosperity for a wide range of applications.