The aim of the second workshop on the use of portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) organized by the Cluster of Excellence TOPOI was to exchange experiences and discuss the basic requirements for the use of pXRF as a tool for chemical analysis of archaeological ceramics. During two days, 49 participants from eight European countries discussed nineteen lectures, twelve of which are published here as papers presenting research on ceramics and glass of various periods from Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Rumania, Ukraine, Sudan, Syria and the United Kingdom. The focus was on analysing bulk pottery and on the possibilities of non-destructive determination of chemical composition. The number of chemical elements significant for provenance studies and determinable with sufficient precision and accuracy plays a major role. This was compared with chemical analysis using WDXRF, ICP-MS, NAA. The different examples prove that the chances of positive outcomes depend very much on the individual cases.