Water security is essential not only to ensure the availability and accessibility of water for drinking, producing food, washing, but also to maintain both human and environmental health. The 2011 Census of India reveals that 17.4% of urban households in India live in deprived areas in urban landscapes which are designated as slums in the Census dataset. The increasing number of people living in these areas poses serious challenges to the provision of basic urban water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) services. Perceived susceptibility of risks from contaminated water and lack of proper sanitation and hygiene will be addressed in the light of social exclusion factors. This study attempts to assess the present situation of water, sanitation and required hygiene provisions within the areas defined as slums by the Census of India 2011 in Kolkata, India. Based on the results obtained from the datasets from the census, and a household survey, we identified a lack of supplies associated with WaSH provisions in these areas of Kolkata. The WaSH provisions in the slum areas of Kolkata city are facing various issues related to regularity, quality and quantity of supplied water. Additionally, there is poor maintenance of existing WaSH services including latrine facilities and per capita allocation of a sustainable water security among the slum dwellers. By adding to our understanding of the importance of factors such as gender, religions, and knowledge of drinking water in deprived areas, the study analyses the links between both physical and social issues determining vulnerability and presence of deprivation associated with basic WaSH provisions as human rights of slum communities.