Oxytocin (OXT) is critically involved in the regulation of attachment and interpersonal function. In this study, emotional childrens movies were used to stimulate OXT secretion in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls (HCs). Furthermore, associations of OXT levels with measures of attachment style (Psychosis Attachment Measure), childhood adversity (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and symptom severity [Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)] were considered. In 35 patients with schizophrenia and 35 matched HCs, radioimmunoassay with sample extraction was used to determine OXT plasma levels before and after viewing of movie scenes portraying emotional bonding and loss and compared to a non-emotional condition. Statistical analysis indicated lower baseline OXT levels in female patients than in all other groups. OXT reactivity during emotional movies was significantly higher in patients when compared to HCs. OXT reactivity during the control movie related to PANSS `general psychopathology. No significant associations appeared between baseline or induced OXT levels and other PANSS subscales, attachment style or childhood adversity in patients. Our findings suggest differences of baseline OXT and a higher OXT reactivity toward strong emotional stimuli in patients with schizophrenia, suggesting a role of OXT as a gender- and context-dependent modulator of socio-emotional function.