A single clove of edible garlic (Allium sativum L.) of about 10 g produces up to 5 mg of allicin (diallylthiosulfinate), a thiol-reactive sulfur-containing defence substance that gives injured garlic tissue its characteristic smell. Allicin induces apoptosis or necrosis in a dose-dependent manner but biocompatible doses influence cellular metabolism and signalling cascades. Oxidation of protein thiols and depletion of the glutathione pool are thought to be responsible for allicin's physiological effects. Here, we studied the effect of allicin on post-translational thiol-modification in human Jurkat T-cells using shotgun LC-MS/MS analyses. We identified 332 proteins that were modified by S-thioallylation in the Jurkat cell proteome which causes a mass shift of 72 Da on cysteines. Many S-thioallylated proteins are highly abundant proteins, including cytoskeletal proteins tubulin, actin, cofilin, filamin and plastin-2, the heat shock chaperones HSP90 and HSPA4, the glycolytic enzymes GAPDH, ALDOA, PKM as well the protein translation factor EEF2. Allicin disrupted the actin cytoskeleton in murine L929 fibroblasts. Allicin stimulated the immune response by causing Zn2+ release from proteins and increasing the Zn2+-dependent IL-1-triggered production of IL-2 in murine EL-4 T-cells. Furthermore, allicin caused inhibition of enolase activity, an enzyme considered a cancer therapy target. In conclusion, our study revealed the widespread extent of S-thioallylation in the human Jurkat cell proteome and showed effects of allicin exposure on essential cellular functions of selected targets, many of which are targets for cancer therapy.