A distinguishing feature among households is whether adult members work or
not, since the employment status affects a household’s available time for home
activities. Using a survey method in two countries, Belgium and Germany, we
provide household incomes that retain the level of well-being across different
family types, distinguished by family size and employment status of adults.
Our tests support that specialization in home production and childcare-time
costs are important determinants of household well-being. Estimates of child
costs relative to an adult are higher for households that are time-constrained
(all adults in the household work), and also higher for poorer households.