In the present scenario of increasing sustainable global governance for ecological issues, the approval of Law 19.300 “Environmental Bases” 1994 in Chile is presented generally as the beginning of a modernization process of environmental institution, which culminates with the creation of the Environmental Ministry 2010 through Law 20.417. The paper will challenge the common understanding of this modernization process simply as institutional improvement and will raise the alternative thesis of a co-production in the representation of the ecological crisis and its solution between the politics and scientific systems. With the historical emergence of the National Environmental Commission (1994) the research shows the emergence of a particular form of relation society-nature in Chile based on: i) the previous environmental institution existing in the country oriented to tackle pollution conflicts ii) the international influences by the official reports of United Nations Environmental Program and the Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development with a center in the institutionalization of the environmental impact assessment and market instrument to regulate environmental problems and, iii) the global market integration of Chile as a supplier of raw material with a high pressure over land, water and energy in territories inhabited by indigenous population. Together, these three influences are at the bottom of a representation of the ecological crisis only in terms of pollution management and rational use of natural resources which exclude the possibility to understand the human and social consequences provoked. In this scenario, the emergence of social movements against mega extractive and energetic projects show the need to review the manner in which the political system renders the environmental crisis. The notion of socio- ecological conflict is presented to understand how the search for sustainability could reinforce environmental problems especially for the mining activity, forestry industry and energy production, milestones of the ecological debate, nowadays.