Background Recently it was suggested that high myopia macular holes (HMMH) and macular holes accompanied by retinal detachment occur in the advanced stages of myopia traction maculopathy (MTM), while macular retinoschisis, shallow retinal detachment without holes, and lamellar macular holes occur in the early stages of MTM. Complete vitreous cortex removal associated with internal limiting membrane peeling is now widely used to treat HMMH. However, it remains uncertain at what HMMH stage patients would benefit most from surgical intervention. Our study was aimed to evaluate the postoperative anatomical changes and functional outcomes of high myopia macular holes (HMMH). Methods Patients were retrospectively collected between March 2009 and August 2011. Before and 1st, 3rd, and 9th month after 23G pars plana vitrectomy, all patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and MP-1. At each follow-up, best- corrected visual acuity (BCVA), photoreceptor inner and outer segments (IS/OS) defects, and retinal sensitivity (RS) were investigated. According to different preoperative macular hole morphologies, patients were divided into three groups: Group 1, macular hole with epiretinal membrane (ERM) traction and macular retinoschisis; Group 2, full-thickness macular hole (FTMH); Group 3, FTMH with subretinal fluid. Results 43 eyes from 43 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 60 years. BCVA and RS were significantly improved after vitrectomy; the mean IS/OS defect was significantly reduced. At 9 postoperative months, 11 of 43 (25.6 %) eyes achieved IS/OS junction integrity; 9 of these 11 (81.8 %) eyes belonged to Group 1, 2 (18.2 %) belonged to Group 2. Conclusions Pars plana vitrectomy combined with ILM peeling and gas tamponade results in limited functional outcomes in patients with HMMH. The appearance of subretinal fluid indicates a worse prognosis for surgical intervention.